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Buying, storing, cooking food: an investigation on the boundaries between home and market. Findings from a survey on meal preparation in Paris and suburbs.

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Presentation on theme: "Buying, storing, cooking food: an investigation on the boundaries between home and market. Findings from a survey on meal preparation in Paris and suburbs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Buying, storing, cooking food: an investigation on the boundaries between home and market. Findings from a survey on meal preparation in Paris and suburbs Séverine Gojard, INRA – UR 1303 ALISS Workshop on Consumption Work and Societal Divisions of Labour, Colchester, 7- 8 November 2013

2 Structure of the intervention Contextual elements Data and methods Results on the associations between home cooking, provisioning, use of processed food items ◦ Investment in meal preparation ◦ Use of canned or frozen foodstuff ◦ Quality labels and specific shopping places Cooking styles and household properties Conclusion: the boundaries between home and market differ according to the households’ social characteristics and to the relevant activities

3 Context : Development of processed food consumption in France during the second half of the XXth century. ◦ For fruit and vegetable : decrease of fresh products consumption, almost compensated for by an increase in processed items Increase of the share of general stores and decrease of small groceries for food shopping General idea that people no longer cook, no longer know how to cook, especially among young or deprived households. But weak empirical evidence

4 Fruit and vegetables purchases in France, second half of XX th C. Source : Nichèle, et al. Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique, 2008

5 Source : Insee, comptes nationaux, base 2000.

6 Source : Insee - Comptes du Commerce, 1999 et 2006 www.insee.fr

7 An exploratory survey on meal preparation To describe the different activities engaged in meal preparation To have a better understanding of the use of processed food (in substitution or in combination with fresh food items) To link those elements ◦ with social and material characteristics (income, education, household structure, available time, location, …) (in progress) ◦ with other dimensions related to meal preparation (cooking skills acquisition, food waste…) (still to be done)

8 The survey Sample of 1000 households living in Paris and suburbs, not retired, representative of the local population (quotas on census data) ◦ Both restrictions due to the special focus we intended to put on time constraints Survey with ◦ face-to-face interviews ◦ collection by the households of all food purchases during two weeks ◦ photos taken of fridges, sometimes also of cupboards and freezers, and of the places in the houses where people keep their recipes Around 800 households completed questionnaires and purchase booklet

9 Rationale This survey allows us to analyse the combination of different activities linked to meal preparation : ◦ Food choice and purchase ◦ Food storage and conservation ◦ Cooking and meal preparation Each relates to a different aspect of food quality, relying on consumption work to different levels and pertaining to delegation in distinct market spheres ◦ Choice  mobilisation of skills to evaluate the quality of producst (freshness for instance) or quality labels if delegation to market ◦ Storage  necessary skills to keep fresh food from decay, or use of canned, frozen, vaccum-packed food if delegation to market ◦ Cooking  cooking skills or use of prepared meals

10 Methods Multi Component Analysis and hierarchical classification in order to give synthetic analysis lines Variables selected give information on ◦ Shopping places (for food purchases) ◦ Use of frozen, canned or vacuum-packed food items ◦ Consumption of individual-packed prepared meals ◦ Frequent realisation of home made products ◦ Time devoted to daily meal preparation (declaration; for dinner on weekdays) ◦ Auto-evaluation of cooking skills ◦ Use of some seasoning products such as fresh herbs Supplementary variables contain information on sociodemographic properties

11 No frequent use of frozen, preserved food items Preference for fresh products Frequent use of frozen, preserved or vacuum- packed food items. Less fresh products Less time devoted to cooking Weak cooking skills declared Rare home made preparations No fresh herbs More time devoted to cooking Strong cooking skills declared Frequent home made preparations Use of fresh herbs AXIS 1 & 2 DELEGATION OF MEAL PREPARATION DELEGATION OF FOOD STORAGE

12 Shopping at conventional places Cooking skills Purchase of organic food Shopping at organic food shops Less time devoted to cooking Weak cooking skills declared Rare home made preparations No fresh herbs More time devoted to cooking Strong cooking skills declared Frequent home made preparations Use of fresh herbs AXIS 1 & 3 DELEGATION OF FOOD QUALIFICATION DELEGATION OF MEAL PREPARATION

13 Three dimensions of delegation from home to market Home cooking Investment in meal preparation Delegation of meal preparation to market Delegation of food qualification to market via organic labelling AXIS 1 AXIS 3 AXIS 2 Delegation of food conditionning and storage capacities to market Predominance of fresh foods Those three dimensions are, by construction, independant from each other

14 A typology of cooking styles Based on this MCA, we constructed a classification in 6 groups ◦ Two groups with high delegation of meal preparation activities ◦ Two groups with low delegation of meal preparation activities ◦ Two groups with high delegation of food qualification Subdivisions operate regarding the other dimensions of delegation A closer analysis of those groups reveals underlying social elements and helps furhter analyze the delegation

15 Low delegation of meal preparation Delegation of food storage Households with children Housewives Middle-aged The lowest income levels of the sample No delegation of food storage nor qualification Couples More than 45 years old Both groups are characterized by a higher proportion of households shopping at markets, spending more than an hour per day for preparing the evening meal, where cooks are more often women, whith high declared cooking skills, and stating the like preparing daily meals Low education level Probably households with no more children at home, Cooking style based on a lot of time and know-how investment Lower economic ressources but higher time availability Cooking style based on organisation, know how, and avoidance of food shortage A B (19,7 %) (15,0 %)

16 High delegation of meal preparation Delegation of food storage Singleparent or extended families Middle aged Distant suburbs Relatively low income Almost no organic products Middle education level No delegation in food storage nor qualification Living alone Less than 30 years old Middle income High education level Both groups are characterized by a higher proportion of households shopping at super and hypermarkets, spending less than 30 mn per day for preparing the evening meal, where cooks are more often men, whith low declared cooking skills, often buying individual prepared meals, and stating the dislike cooking Probably people who often eat out Time and financial constraints C D (11,7 %) (23,3 %)

17 High delegation of food qualification Delegation of food storage Women Couples or lone parent families More than 45 years old No delegation of meal preparation nor food storage Men Living alone or in childless couples Time constraints Both groups are characterized by a higher proportion of households shopping at places specialised in organic food products, spending 30 to 45 mn per day for preparing the evening meal. High education level, high incomes, more often living in Paris intramuros Cooking style based on a low degree of investment and know how, compensated for by purchases of quality labelled food. Higher investment and more cooking skills, lack of time compensated for by quality food and domestic organization E F (12,7 %) (17,5 %)

18 No frequent use of frozen, preserved food items Preference for fresh products Frequent use of frozen, preserved or vacuum- packed food items. Less fresh products Less time devoted to cooking Weak cooking skills declared Rare home made preparations No fresh herbs More time devoted to cooking Strong cooking skills declared Frequent home made preparations Use of fresh herbs AXIS 1 & 2 DELEGATION OF MEAL PREPARATION DELEGATION OF FOOD STORAGE A B C D F E

19 Shopping at conventional places Cooking skills Purchase of organic food Shopping at organic food shops Less time devoted to cooking Weak cooking skills declared Rare home made preparations No fresh herbs More time devoted to cooking Strong cooking skills declared Frequent home made preparations Use of fresh herbs AXIS 1 & 3 DELEGATION OF FOOD QUALIFICATION DELEGATION OF MEAL PREPARATION A B D C E F

20 Conclusion Delegation of one activity does not imply delegation of the other. ◦ We can distinguish different levels of consumption work and of delegation to market. ◦ Delegation can be due to a lack of skills at home, but not always  Delegation of qualification  Higher position in social hierarchy linked to organic food consumption  Delegation of storage  Linked to the presence of children at home,  Reveals different temporalities (lower frequency of food purchase),  Higher position in social hierarchy linked to fresh products purchase  Delegation of meal preparation  Strongly connected to life cycle effects and time constraints

21 Acknowledgements Fundings from Region Ile de France, CPER R1-P33 Pole alimentation Parisien Thanks to Solal team for numerous discussions about the questionnaire Thanks to Delphine Guérin who took in charge the statistical analysis and to Marie Plessz for precious help at different stages of the research. Survey conducted by Ipsos Institute


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