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Atmospheric and cryospheric related services on the Third Pole region: requirements and gaps Xiao Cun-de ( State Key Lab of Cryospheric Sciences, CAS;

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Presentation on theme: "Atmospheric and cryospheric related services on the Third Pole region: requirements and gaps Xiao Cun-de ( State Key Lab of Cryospheric Sciences, CAS;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmospheric and cryospheric related services on the Third Pole region: requirements and gaps Xiao Cun-de ( State Key Lab of Cryospheric Sciences, CAS; also at Institute of Climate System, CAMS; Member of WMO EC-PORS/GCW) April. 8, 2013 Beijing Ninth Session of FOCRAII

2 Outline WMO initiative on Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW) Services on the “Third Pole” region Regional plan and gaps (questionnaire)

3 The Cryosphere The cryosphere collectively describes elements of the Earth System containing water in its frozen state. It includes solid precipitation, snow cover, sea ice, lake and river ice, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, permafrost, and seasonally frozen ground. The cryosphere exists at all latitudes and in about one hundred countries.

4 Working Groups Users and Applications research, operational centres, security, impacts, adaptation Advisory Group Outreach, Education, Capacity Building WMO Observations reference stations, contributing networks, satellites Cryosphere Products operational products, reanalyses, research datasets GCW Portal integrating data and information GCW Information and Analysis anomaly tracking, hot-spots, variability and change, global and regional products Data and Information Management Board Partners met centres satellite agencies data centres Project Office Organization: GCW Conceptual Framework

5 Key Tasks 1.Implement recommendations of the IGOS Cryosphere Theme (“CryOS”) 2.Assess user needs and requirements 3.Establish measurement standards and best practices 4.Establish a network of surface sites, called “CryoNet” 5.Select candidate products for GCW 6.Promote product intercomparisons, particularly satellite 7.Develop a web (meta) data portal and interoperability for cryosphere users and providers 8.Capacity building 9.Communication and outreach

6 GCW/CRYONET Structure 1st CryoNet Implementation Meeting (Vienna, November 2012) CryoNet: Surface measurement sites. Over 80 have been “offered”, e.g., Sodankylä, China, Sonnblick, IASOA(S) Site capabilities are being surveyed and site type definition (baseline sites, reference sites, integrated sites) Measurement standards and practices – Existing documents are being evaluated To meet different user-needs and because of the spatially distributed nature of different components of the cryosphere the CryoNet network of in-situ observations is structured into three different classes of observational sites Baseline Sites Single sphere Standardized Reference Sites Single sphere Long-term Cal/Val Standardized Long-term financial commitment Integrated Sites Multi sphere Cal/Val Strong research focus Training Onsite staff Standardized Long-term financial commitment These are being refined as CryoNet IP is developed

7 Outline WMO initiative on Global Cryosphere Watch (WMO) Services on the “Third Pole” region Regional plan and gaps (questionnaire)

8 The Third Pole covers five million km 2 in area with more than 100,000 km 2 of glaciers, more than 1000 lakes and 10 big rivers.

9 HAC versus water, showing basins like Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Yellow and Mekong rivers (ICIMOD, 2005), and Tarim River Cryosphereic change and melt-water availability

10 Direct and potential impacted areas by meltwater Indus Ganges Yalizangbu Tarim River Ertysh Yenisal Yangtze Yellow River Lu River Meikong Ili Eb High Asia cryosphere Most direct impacted area Potential impacted area

11 Impacts on regional climate More extreme events in recent years in winter/spring: closely related to Tibetan Plateau and Arctic Monsoon onset and northward movement is closely related to Asian cryopshere

12 Stable snow cover Area : Stable snow cov 420  10 4 km 2 SWE : 750  10 8 m 3 Number : Area : km 2 Volume: 5.6  m 3 Area : Permafrost 220  10 4 km 2 Ice content : 9.5  m 3 Glacier permafrost SFG Frozen ground Snow cover China is one of most cryosphere-developed countries in the mid-latitude

13 Different types of glaciers experienced different rates of changes Strong negative mass balance since 1990s Continental-type glacier Marine-type glacier Sub-continental glaciers

14 Temperature changes at 6-m depth along Tibet Highway during , and the rate of changes at each site QTB01 :西大滩; QTB02 :昆仑山垭口南坡; QTB03 :青藏公路 66 道班; QTB04 :清水河 203 孔; QTB06 :可可 西里特大桥; QTB07 :五道梁火车站南; QTB09 :可可西里; QTB15 :温泉; QTB16 :唐古拉; QTB18 :两道河; XDT: 西大滩; XSH: 斜水河; CM1: 楚玛尔河; WDL: 五道梁; KKXL: 可可西里

15 Geographic GAPS A mini- hole: yet on the roof of the Earth, leaking of science

16 Area above 4000 m a.s.l.

17 Area above 5000 m a.s.l.

18 Area above 6000 m a.s.l.

19 Re-designed High Asian Cryosphere network, 7 “supersites”

20 Cryosphere Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithopshere Anthrosphere Weather forecast, Climate prediction Pasture and ecology preservation related with thawing of FG water availability Adaptation strategy Debris flow/ GLOFs/ground settlement Services that related to atmosphere/cryosphere in the Third Pole region

21 pasture and floodinginfrastructures Agriculture GLOFs Glacial debris flow Frozen rain

22 Weather/climate: gaps Onset of summer monsoon Teleconnection: floods of mid-low reached of Yangtze River Snow cover on Tibet and Eurasia influences Rely largely on data set and deep understanding of SC on Tibet and Eurasia

23 Extreme events/disasters: gaps spring meltwater floods frozen rain blizzard over pasture areas GLOFs debris flow Frozen rain, 2008 Correlation between Arctic sea ice and Siberia high Shrinking sea ice leads to more frequent extreme events in winter/spring in China (from Wu B. et al.)

24 Outline WMO initiative on Global Cryosphere Watch (WMO) Services on the “Third Pole” region Regional plan and gaps (questionnaire)

25 4 th Session of Expert Council on Polar Observation, Research and Services (EC-PORS), WMO (Including the Third Pole)

26 Informal Meeting of Asian GCW/CryoNet, decided a formal meeting that will be held in Beijing, Sep.17-19, 2013

27 Regional CryoNet Workshop in Asia The success of GCW and CryoNet depends on engagement of WMO members and national agencies engaged in observation, monitoring, modelling and assessment of the cryosphere locally, regionally and globally - in China, the co-operation of CMA and CAS is essential In Asia – need the 3 rd pole countries cooperating to maximize benefits CryoNet and GCW could offer a collective approach to improve : – environmental monitoring and modelling supporting policy and decision making; – data management, including exchange, allowing data and information to be shared locally (residents and government) and regionally; – implementation of standards for observation and exchange of cryospheric data and information; – a collective long-term sustainable network to provide high quality data and information for monitoring changes in the cryosphere and for validation and calibration ofmodels and satellite products – Training in observation of the cryosphere

28 Regional CryoNet Workshop in Asia…2 Propose a workshop be held in central Asia, targeting efforts in the “Third Pole” region; it is suggested the workshop on September, Beijing) The workshop would aim to enhance regional capabilities for measurements of snow and ice, and will expand collaboration between developing countries. Outcomes include : – an inventory of available cryospheric information, products and services that are currently available – an assessment of regional needs for cryospheric information, – the identification of potential collaborative regional contributions to GCW – the identification of observation sites in the region that can become part of the GCW surface network (“CryoNet”)

29 Observations 3rd Pole -AntON -GCW -PSTG -WIGOS/WIS, GAW -High mountain obsevational network -3rd pole-GCW (re-design and improve) -Hydrological measurements improved -Global snow measurements (satellite) -... Observations: 3rd Pole ing me: Questionnaire: 1/4

30 Researcch 3rd Pole Research -WWRP/PPP -WCRP -IPI -Regional Climate model -Catchment scale hydrological model needed -Global snow assimilation in NWP -IPI-3rdPole? Research: 3rd Pole ing me: Questionnaire: 2/4

31 Services/GIPPS 3rd Pole -Timescales -User/client sectors -Arctic HYCOS -GFCS/RCC/RCOF Beijing RCC Hours to weeks -Snowmelt floods Seasonal scale -Meltwater availability in seasonal scale -Extreme events related to weather and water Annual to decadal scale -An assessment of water resouces -Improved regional climate predictions -... Platforms-Globsnow, Beijing-RCC, RCOF -Cold and arid regions Data Base (CAREERI) -... Partners/Stakeholders -incl. TC’s & RA’s -RA-II, Asian CliC, TPE (Third Pole Env.) -ICIMOD -... Service mapping: 3rd Pole ing me: Questionnaire: 3/4

32 Potential participants Contact information Workshop in Sep. 2013, Beijing ing me: Questionnaire: 4/4

33 Welcome to


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