The Arctic and Antarctic have great similarities and differences. Many different people have lived in the Arctic for thousands of years. Indigenous people are people native to a region. There are no true permanent human residents in the Antarctic. http://www.educapoles.org/multimedia/pic ture_gallery_detail/arctic_people/
There are many Western scientists who stay usually for a few months at a time to conduct scientific research. These researchers must bring with them everything they need to survive, including food, fuel, shelter, transportation and clothing.
Let’s explore the Arctic Circle! Background info (teacher) http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/ArcticAtlas.pdf Student handouts http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/docs/student/ArcticAtlass.pdf Arctic Atlas Tool http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/ipy07_int_arcticatlas/ipy07_int_arcticatlas.html Allows us to investigate amount of land cover, permafrost, precipitation, solar radiation and topography.
Daylight and lack thereof Places in the Artic experience at least 1 full 24-hour day of sunlight and one 24 day of darkness per year. http://www.mathsisfun.com/earth-orbit.html Some images from Greenland https://cid- 7379cc805c5406ec.photos.live.com/play.aspx/Greenland%2 0pictures?Bsrc=Photomail&Bpub=SDX.Photos https://cid- 7379cc805c5406ec.photos.live.com/play.aspx/Greenland%2 0pictures?Bsrc=Photomail&Bpub=SDX.Photos
Winter and Summer Solstice Background information (teacher) http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/Solstice.pdf Student handout http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/docs/student/Solstices.pdf Earth Moon Viewer http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/Earth/action?opt=-p Native People Photo Gallery http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/Earth/action?opt=-p
St. Lawrence Island Hunting in 1930’s http://sirismm.si.edu/hsfa/sihsfa_82_6_1.mov Let’s read a story http://www.us- satellite.net/sprintt/docs/water1_iikin.cfmhttp://www.us- satellite.net/sprintt/docs/water1_iikin.cfm
Vocabulary Images Harpoon: long pointed piece of metal attached to a cord and thrown or fired from a gun in order to capture whales or other large sea animals Hummock: a ridge or hill of ice in an ice field. Asunder: Breaking into pieces. Inuit Harpoon
Let’s investigate a bit further… Environmental FactorObservationsEffects on People
Exploration time… http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/flash/water1_explore.cfm Look at the table we will be filling in that’s in your packet. Average HIGH temp for Jan., March, June, Sept. Average inches of rainfall for Jan., March, June, Sept. Average hours of daylight for Jan., March, June, Sept. Describe in words how the environments of the Arctic and Antarctic differ in January and June. Be sure to include sunlight, temperature, and rainfall in your description.
Now work with your table partner. Compare the two images of St. Lawrence Island and the weather conditions on each day. As a team, come up with some answers to the questions on your worksheet pg.11.
Indigenous scientific knowledge and Western scientific knowledge work together. Over the next few lessons you will see how both Indigenous scientific knowledge and Western scientific knowledge, each better help us to understand Earth’s Polar Regions and the changes that these areas are experiencing.
Evaluate Your Understanding Now answer the questions on pg. 13 to test your understanding of the material we just covered. Turn in your packets when you are done.
Frozen Water II Glaciers, Sea Ice and Climate Change
What is sea ice? Sea ice is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface. Blanketing millions of square kilometers, sea ice forms and melts with the polar seasons, affecting both human activity and biological habitats. In the Arctic, some sea ice persists year after year, whereas almost all Southern Ocean or Antarctic sea ice is "seasonal ice," meaning it melts away and reforms annually. While both Arctic and Antarctic ice are of vital importance to the marine mammals and birds for which they are habitats, sea ice in the Arctic appears to play a more crucial role in regulating climate. http://nsidc.org/sotc/sea_ice.html
The map below shows the regions inhabited by different groups of Alaska Natives. In the videos you will watch, you will “meet” members of the Inuit and Athabascan groups. Later in the lesson, you will be introduced to some words from the Inupiat language.
What to look for… As you watch the videos list some of the changes that are taking place in the North pg. 25.
The first video we are going to watch is of Rosemarie Kuptana, an Inuit woman from Sachs Harbour, Canada, telling the story of changes that her people have noticed, and what some of the results of the climate changes might be. You will see that Western and Indigenous scientists are working together to try and observe and explain the changes. http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/video/ipy07_vid_inuitobserv/ipy07_vid_inuitobserv.html
Observing Changes The second video discusses even more changes that are occurring, from the perspective of both Athabascan people and Western scientists. http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/video/arcathacounciltemplate.cfm?video=water2b
We all, of course, experience the short-term characteristics of air in the Earth’s atmosphere at a specific location, known as the weather. Patterns of temperature and precipitation for an area and over long periods of time are known as climate. Climate is affected by many factors such as distance from the equator, distance from large bodies of water or mountains, vegetation, elevation above sea level, and ocean currents.
Climate change Earth’s climate has undergone drastic changes in the planet’s history. Scientists and citizens are noticing that we are in the midst of some sort of climate change. Most believe, however, that the current change is different—humans are likely causing the changes. The current changes that Alaska Natives discussed in the video are part of what is called global climate change, often referred to as global warming.
Our changing climate Earth has gone through ice ages and periods of great warmth. This variability in Earths climate has many causes including; The “wobbling” of Earth on its axis. http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es15 06/es1506page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es15 06/es1506page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization Sunspot cycles Changes in volcanic activity And more…
Climate Change In the past 100 years scientists have observed the Earth getting warmer. While the temperature increase may not feel like a big change on a day to day basis, one must consider that during the last ice age, Earth was only 4 C (7 F) cooler.
Why does ice float? Background information (teacher) http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/WhydoesIceFloat.pdf Student worksheets http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/docs/student/WhyIces.pdf
Let’s do a lab! We are going to do an investigation that models what happens to ice that melts in the Arctic vs the Antarctic. You will work in a team to decide how to preform your study. You will need… 2 beakers half full of water (your ocean) Tape or grease pencil to make the level of the water. Rock, brick, wood or other object to use as your landmass that will support your glacier. 10 ice cubes Heat lamp to melt the ice Ruler
Question? What do you think could be some of the results of melting glaciers and sea ice? Let’s watch another short video clip. We will see some of the effects of melting ice that Athabascans in Alaska are experiencing. http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/video/arcathacounciltemplate.cfm?video=water2c
Melting Ice and Changing Coastlines Background information (teacher) http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/MeltingIce.pdf Student Handouts http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/docs/student/MeltingIces.pdf Ice Shelf and Ice Sheet video simulation http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/ipy07_int_icesimulate/ipy07_int_icesimulate.html Map animation of sea level rise https://www.cresis.ku.edu/data/sea-level-rise-maps
How Arctic ice melt will affect biological communities. Background information http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/SeaIceMelt.pdf Data set #1 http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/seaicesheet1.cfm Data set #2 http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/seaicesheet2.cfm
We have now finished Frozen Water Turn in your completed student packet.
Question? Many of you know the tundra. What do you think of when you picture the tundra environment? Take a look at a description of the tundra from Alaskan natives living in Chevak, a village in western Alaska. Read the passage in your packets.
Question? What did you learn from this description of the tundra? Student ideas: from Article a lot of freezing and thawing very little precipitation no average temps above 50 F (10 C) has at least 9 months with average temps below 0 C (32 F)
I will give you 5 minutes to write what you know about each of these biomes in the table that’s in your packet.
Question? Who can explain what a biome is. What are some ways the tundra is unique compared to these other biomes?
Background Earth has many land biomes, the coldest of which is the tundra. Biome: large environments with similar temperatures, precipitation, and living things. Tundra: treeless plain with frost covered landscapes and very low temperatures.
Explore We are going to explore the tundra biome in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Use your chart to take notes on what you see. http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/teachers/land1_video1.cfm http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.eco.arctic/
Partner up and read… About the different biomes on our planet and answer the questions on page 48.
Tundra Animals and Plants Background information (teacher) http://www.us-satellite.net/sprintt/phase2/PlantsTundra.pdf Let’s watch a video clip “Wild Arctic” http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.eco. arctic/ http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.eco. arctic/
Project Create a diagram of the Arctic animal and Arctic plant you researched on poster board or construction paper and give a brief presentation to the class. Include the information below on your diagram. a. Name of animal and/or plant b. Size (length or height and weight; give a range) c. Habitat and Distribution d. Diet or prey e. Main predators f. Physical adaptations (Explain how each helps the animal survive.) g. Behavioral adaptations (Explain how each helps the animal survive.) The following web-site may be helpful for you http://www.arctic.uoguelph.ca/cpl/organisms/orgframe.htm http://www.arctic.uoguelph.ca/cpl/organisms/orgframe.htm