RUSSIAN CLIMATE The whole of Northern Russia is within the Arctic Circle. One third of the land is permanently frozen. Southern Russia is sub-tropical. The dominant feature of the Russian Climate is the extreme cold of winter The period when rivers are completely frozen varies from 70 days a year in the west of the country to as much as 250 days in northern Siberia.
RUSSIAN CLIMATE Almost everywhere in the country precipitation is rather low. In some of the major grain-producing areas of southern Russia, drought can drastically reduce crop yields in some years. So intense is the cold in winter that northern and eastern Siberia experience a phenomenon called permafrost. Here the subsoil remains frozen all year although the topsoil may thaw out during the summer.
RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH Christian church that originated in the Byzantine Empire and recognizes the Patriarch of Constantinople as primate rather than the Pope The national religion of the Russian The Tsar was believed to have been chosen by God therefore the church had a very strong influence on the governing of the country
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM DEFINITION: The belief in the importance of individual liberty and human rights. Liberalists support and advocate for things such as; - a constitution - free and fair elections - equal rights/human rights - free trade - separation of church and state
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1750-1850 Industrialisation develops rapidly in France, Great Britain and the America’s Agricultural machinery is developed and begins to replace manual labour. Factories are built and a working class develops
FRENCH REVOLUTION 1789-1799 Liberty leading the people, Eugene Delacroix
FRENCH REVOLUTION What is a revolution? An overthrow or repudiation. The thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed.
FRENCH REVOLUTION Occurred from 1789-1799 A series of events led by liberal political groups and involving the common masses which led to major reforms and the eventual overthrow of Loius XVI (16 th ).
FRANCE BEFORE THE REVOLUTION Absolutist politics legal inequality feudal economy (including serfdom) alliance of church and state
FRANCE AFTER THE REVOLUTION A constitution and the rule of law to govern politics equal rights separation of church and state sovereignty belonging to the people
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM Alexander I comes into power s the Tsar of Russia in 1801 Ideas of liberal reform emerge
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM In 1812 Napolean tries to enter Russia but is defeated by the Russian army As a result of the threat of Revolution, Alexander returns to conservative ideas inc. - censorship - closely monitored growth in education - banning of foreign literature
DECEMBRISTS’ REVOLT Alexander I dies in 1825 leaving confusion about who is the next heir to the throne. Nicholas I eventually inherits the throne On December14, a secret society made up of junior officers stormed Senate Square in an attempt to seize power They had planned to do this through the set up of a constituent assembly that would introduce their reforms.
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM Nicholas I dies in 1855 and his son Alexander II (‘Alexander the Liberator’) inherits the throne.
THE CRIMEAN WAR 1853-1856 Russia had long waited to gain control of the Bosphoros Straits and Dardenelles to gain vital access to the Mediterranean. Britain, France and Austria intervene on behalf of Turkey. Russia lacks industrial capacity to support a modern army and loses war.
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM In 1861 he introduces The Edict of Emancipation ( the abolition of serfdom) - Serfs were freed from there masters (the nobility) and given plots of land from the estates of the nobility. They were however forced to pay for the land by making yearly payments to the government. - Most peasants could not afford these payments and went into debt. The peasants felt portrayed by this because they felt like the land belonged to the people that worked it- them. - The nobility also resented the Emancipation Edict thus alienating both groups in society.
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM Although he refused to consider an elected parliament he introduced local councils who were responsible for; - maintenance of roads and bridges - upkeep of hospitals and prisons - prevention of famine - public health and education
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM In October 1879 the People’s Will was formed. A group advocating violence to achieve reform. After several failed attempts, the group succeeded in killing the Tsar on March 1 1881.
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM In 1881,Alexander III inherits the throne. Industrialisation begins to take off in Russia and the urban labour force grows rapidly
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM He tightens censorship of the press and banishes thousands of revolutionaries to Siberia He also restores full autocracy and judges and officials who were sympathetic to liberal ideas are removed from office Creates the new Secret Police to spy on any group opposed to the Tsar
A HISTORY OF LIBERALISM A policy of Russification is introduced involving the imposing of the Russian language and Russian schools on Germans, Poles, Finns and all other minor nationalities Alexander III dies in 1894 and Nicholas II ascends the throne