Presentation on theme: "Fish Buying, Handling, Cooking. Buying Fresh Fresh fish are very perishable, so look for the following characteristics as a guide to good quality: Tips."— Presentation transcript:
Fish Buying, Handling, Cooking
Buying Fresh Fresh fish are very perishable, so look for the following characteristics as a guide to good quality: Tips for Buying Fresh Whole Fish Full, clear, bright eyes. Bright red or pink, clean gills. Fresh, mild odor.
Buying Fresh Whole Fish Shiny, brightly colored skin with tightly adhering scales. Firm flesh, elastic to the touch, clinging tightly to the bones. Proper display: on ice tables or in refrigerated units at 1-2 degrees Celsius (34-36 degrees Fahrenheit).
Buying Fresh Fillets and Steaks Glossy and freshly-cut appearance, firm texture. No browning / drying around cut edges. No discoloration. Proper display perforated plastic or metal trays to drain liquid in closed refrigerated units F or surrounded by crushed ice.
Buying Frozen Freezing locks in freshness, flavor and texture. Look for solidly frozen products. If surface is visible make sure there are no dried cottony patches or discolored spots on the surface of the fish, and there are no ice crystals or frost inside the wrapping. When buying frozen whole fish, choose fish with an ice coating or glaze, which prevents discoloration and drying.
Market Forms Whole or Round- Whole fish just as it comes from the water. Yields- 2-4 servings per kg or 1-2 servings per pound. Dressed- Whole fish, gutted with or without head. Yields- 4-6 servings per kg or 2-3 servings per pound. Steaks- Cross-section cuts of large fish. Yields- 4-6 servings per kg or 2-3 servings per pound. Fillets- Meaty sides of fish. Yields- 6-8 servings per kg or 3-4 servings per pound.
Cooking Guidelines and Methods for Fish Fish are naturally tender contain very little connective tissue. Unlike meat, they require short cooking times at a high temperature.
Guidelines for Cooking Fish Measure fish (dressed or stuffed, fillets or steaks) at thickest part. Allow 10 minutes per inch for fresh fish. Allow 20 minutes per inch) for frozen fish. Fish is ready when fish is opaque and flakes easily. DO NOT OVERCOOK
Baking Baking is the process of cooking fish at certain temperatures in an oven. Place fish in a greased baking pan. Brush with melted butter and season with salt and pepper. Bake in center of preheated 450 oven Follow cooking guidelines above. -Use fresh or thawed fish -Flavor with basting sauce, lemon juice or dry white wine -Stuff dressed fish no more than 2/3 full -Serve as is or with a sauce
Barbecuing Barbecuing is the process of cooking fish at high temperatures over coals or an open flame. Marinate fish. Place in oiled wire basket on oiled grill. Baste with marinade during cooking. Cook 3-4 inches above coals or flame, turning halfway through cooking time. Follow cooking guidelines above. -Use fresh or thawed fish -Place charcoal/propane barbecue in a well ventilated location. Adjust air trap. -Try this method for kebabs or for foil-wrapped fish with vegetables.
Blackening Blackening is the process of cooking fish by coating in spice and cooking at extremely high heat. The process actually creates a barrier between the food and the heat, allowing blackening, not burning, to occur. To blacken properly, a cast iron skillet or grill plate is heated over very high temperature until just short of a white spot or ash appearing. The fish to be cooked should be at room temperature.
Blackening Dip fish into melted, clarified butter, then sprinkle with spice For more flavor, roll fish into spice mix before cooking and the butter can be omitted to reduce calories. Place the fish onto the pan, cooking for 1-2 minutes on each side. Adds a distinctive flavor to fish while creating a savory, moisture-retaining barrier around the outside.
Blackening The result is a warm, smoky grilled flavors and succulent textures. The high heat required by blackening means that you will need a skillet or pan made of cast iron. There is really no substitute. blackening will create a great amount of smoke Work in a well-ventilated area - outdoors using a gas grill will work, as will a commercial kitchen environment.
Broiling the process of cooking fish under an open flame or electric element at high temperatures. Brush fish with melted butter and season OR marinate. Place in single layer on a well greased broiler pan. Broil 3-4 inches from the preheated unit. Baste during cooking. Follow cooking guidelines above. -Use fresh or thawed fish -Turn thick pieces halfway through cooking time -Serve as is or with a sauce
Bronzing Bronzing is a name that we apply to a technique similar to “blackening”, but at a lower temperature than is required for blackening. As with blackening, bronzing is cooking fish by coating the fish in spice and cooking it quickly on a pan or grill. Bronzing spices generally contain more herbs than blackening spices. The spice and the cooking process create a crispy, flavorful barrier around the fish being bronzed.
To “bronze” properly use stainless steel pan heated over high heat The skillet should be dry before it is heated. The food should be at room temperature. Sprinkle the food with bronzing spice Place the food onto the pan, drizzle with a small amount of melted, clarified butter. Cook for 1-2 minutes. Turn with a spatula and drizzle again with a small amount of butter. Cook for another 1-2 minutes and remove from the pan.
Bronzing adds a distinctive flavor to fish while creating a savory, moisture-retaining barrier around the outside. By creating a crisp, savory coating of spice, the full flavor of the fish being bronzed develops inside – creating a delicious balance between the discrete combinations of flavor and texture. The heat required by bronzing means that you will need a good quality stainless steel pan which won’t warp when heated. A slim stainless or Teflon spatula is also helpful to remove the food from the pan without tearing the outer, spiced layer of the food away.
Oven Steaming the process of cooking fish wrapped in aluminum foil in an oven with a cooking liquid or sauce. Place on greased heavy-duty aluminum foil. Season, flavor with lemon juice, butter and parsley. Wrap tightly. Place on sheet pan. Bake in center of preheated oven 450 degrees Follow cooking guidelines above. -Use fresh or frozen fish -Flavor with wine, herbs, juice or vegetables -Use cooking liquid for sauce
Poaching in Court-Bouillon Poaching is the process of cooking fish in boiling water. Prepare a court-bouillon. Wrap fish in cheese cloth. Place in rapidly boiling liquid, cover pan, return to boil, then reduce to simmer. Follow cooking guidelines above. -Use fresh or frozen fish -Drain court-bouillon for reuse, refrigerate for up to 1 week or keep frozen for up to 2 months
Pan-Frying Frying is the process of cooking fish in an open pan or pot using butter, lard or oil. Season each portion of fish. Cover lightly with flour, dip in liquid (milk or beaten egg) Coat with flour or crumbs. Heat butter or cooking fat. Fry on both sides Follow cooking guidelines above. Drain on absorbent paper. -Use fresh or thawed fish -Try this method for fish cakes or small fish such as smelt and rainbow trout
Deep Frying Preheat oil to 375 degrees Sprinkle fish with salt, coat with batter OR cover lightly with flour, dip in milk or beaten egg, then coat with flour or crumbs. Fry a few pieces at a time. Follow cooking guidelines above. Drain on absorbent paper. -Use fresh or thawed fish -Be sure the fat returns to 375 before frying additional pieces -Serve with lemon wedges or sauce
Brine Solutions for Freezing cold water 4 cups-3 T pickling salt. OR cold water 4 cups- 2.5 T pickling salt. Stir well to dissolve salt. Use as directed for freezing fish
Court-Bouillon for Poaching 1/2 cup) vinegar or dry white wine. 1 T salt. 1 celery stalk. 1/4 cup sliced onion. 1/4 cup sliced carrot. 1/4 tsp) thyme. 1/2 tsp peppercorn. 1 Bay leaf. 1 T chopped parsley. 4 cups) boiling water. Combine all ingredients and pour over fish fillets. Cover and boil gently 10 minutes. Use to poach fish. Strain, then use as a base for soups and sauces or freeze for reuse in poaching. Makes about 4 cups.
Crispy Batter for Deep-Frying 1 cup all-purpose flour. 2 tsp baking powder tsp salt. 2 tsp sugar. 1 T vegetable oil. 1 cup water. Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add oil to water. Make a well in the dry ingredients and slowly pour in liquid, stirring until well-blended. Makes enough for 2 pounds fish.
Fish Marinade 2 cups white wine 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons prepared brown mustard 2 teaspoons salt 1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper In a bowl combine white wine, lemon juice, salt, prepared brown mustard, salt, and cayenne pepper. Marinade the fish 6-12 hours. Use the marinade as a basting sauce while cooking. Serving Size: 6
Tips for Fish Let your eyes and nose be the judge. Good quality fish smells sea-fresh. It should not have a strong odor or smell bad. Fish fillets and steaks should appear moist, firm and freshly cut. To know how long to cook fish, measure at the thickest point, then allow 10 minutes per inch. This applies to all methods of cooking, such as broiling, frying, grilling, poaching, and steaming. Thaw fish fillets in milk. The milk absorbs the "frozen" taste and adds a "fresh caught" taste.
Tips, cont Place a "bed" of celery and onions under fish when baking. Besides adding flavor, it will prevent the fish from sticking. Marinate in zip top plastic bags instead of bowls or containers you have to clean. Be sure to flip the bag from time to time to make sure everything gets a good soak! When freezing large quantities of fish, place a piece of the wrapping material between each. They'll separate easily to make thawing quicker.