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Agricultural Production in Developing Country Presented by Jittima Poonnotog Module 551.

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Presentation on theme: "Agricultural Production in Developing Country Presented by Jittima Poonnotog Module 551."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agricultural Production in Developing Country Presented by Jittima Poonnotog Module 551

2 DURIAN IN THAILAND

3 Introduction of Durian Scientific name : Durio zibethinus Scientific name : Durio zibethinus Origin : Borneo, Sumatra, Malaysia, southern region of Thailand Origin : Borneo, Sumatra, Malaysia, southern region of Thailand Cultivation area : Sri Lanka, southern India, southern Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Borneo, Mindanao and New Guinea Cultivation area : Sri Lanka, southern India, southern Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Borneo, Mindanao and New Guinea In Asia call ‘King of Tropical fruit’ In Asia call ‘King of Tropical fruit’

4 Location of Thailand

5 General Information of Thailand Latitude: 5 º 40’ and 20 º 30’ North Latitude: 5 º 40’ and 20 º 30’ North Longitude: 90 º 70’ and 105 º 45’ East Longitude: 90 º 70’ and 105 º 45’ East Average temperature : 26 º – 28 º c Average temperature : 26 º – 28 º c Maximum temperature : 38 º – 43 º c Minimum temperature : 5 º – 19 º c Climate: humid tropical Climate: humid tropical Average rainfall range : 1,018 – 5,106 mm Average rainfall range : 1,018 – 5,106 mm Hot dry season: March – April Hot dry season: March – April Rainy season: May – October Rainy season: May – October Cold dry season: November - February Cold dry season: November - February

6 Location of Durian Production

7 Location of Durian Cultivation Eastern region 75% Eastern region 75% Rainfall 1,312-4,456mm Humidity 74-78% Temperature 9 º - 38 º c Average 27 º c Fruit Apr - Jun Southern region 25% Southern region 25% Rainfall 1,018-2,568mm Humidity 78-82% Temperature 14 º - 39 º c Average 27 º c Fruit Aug - Oct

8 Characteristics Tree : perennial, life years, straight low-branched trunk, height feet, soft wood Tree : perennial, life years, straight low-branched trunk, height feet, soft wood Leaf : length 8-20 cm, width 4-6 cm, colour light to dark green on upper, silvery or brown rusty underneath Leaf : length 8-20 cm, width 4-6 cm, colour light to dark green on upper, silvery or brown rusty underneath Flower : white colour, main branches/trunk, dry season Flower : white colour, main branches/trunk, dry season Fruit : 3-5 compartments, green outside with stout sharp-pyramidal spines, aril yellow with strong odour Fruit : 3-5 compartments, green outside with stout sharp-pyramidal spines, aril yellow with strong odour

9 Cultivation Pruning : branch, flower, fruit Pruning : branch, flower, fruit Irrigation : dry longer than 3 month and when flower and fruit Irrigation : dry longer than 3 month and when flower and fruit Transplanting : before rainy season, need wide space Transplanting : before rainy season, need wide space Pest : patch canker and root rot - Phytophthora palmivora, fruit – Sclerotum rolfsii Pest : patch canker and root rot - Phytophthora palmivora, fruit – Sclerotum rolfsii

10 Harvesting Maturity : days from bloom Maturity : days from bloom Full mature : more than90%, storage life 3-4 days Full mature : more than90%, storage life 3-4 days Matured green : 80%-90%, storage life 5-8 days up to days, good quality for consumption Matured green : 80%-90%, storage life 5-8 days up to days, good quality for consumption Immature : less than 75% Immature : less than 75% Most durian are harvested in matured green stage. Overripe and immature subject to inferior. Most durian are harvested in matured green stage. Overripe and immature subject to inferior. Fruits are tied to braches to prevent natural fall Fruits are tied to braches to prevent natural fall Quality base upon fruit variety standard. Quality base upon fruit variety standard.

11 Post harvesting Harvested with peduncle Harvested with peduncle Put on a container: plastic or bamboo basket Put on a container: plastic or bamboo basket Stack in bulk on truck and cover with jute bag or canvas Stack in bulk on truck and cover with jute bag or canvas Store at 15 º c to extend shelf life Store at 15 º c to extend shelf life Optimum storage at 4 º c – extend days Optimum storage at 4 º c – extend days

12 Flower Leaf Fruit

13 CHA-NEE MON-TONG KAN-YAO KRA-DUM-TONG Durian variety Commercial

14 Harvesting Durian orchard

15 Post harvesting

16 Utilization and Nutrition Fresh Fresh Overripe to process: paste, chips, powder, mixed with coconut milk Overripe to process: paste, chips, powder, mixed with coconut milk Seeds : fried, boiled, roasted Seeds : fried, boiled, roasted Dry husk : fuel and fertilizer Dry husk : fuel and fertilizer Edible pulp 100 g contain 129 Calories, 70.9% moisture, 19.3 g Carbohydrate Edible pulp 100 g contain 129 Calories, 70.9% moisture, 19.3 g Carbohydrate

17 Durian freshDurian chip

18 Marketing 85% fresh in Thailand, 10% export – fresh and frozen, 5% processed product 85% fresh in Thailand, 10% export – fresh and frozen, 5% processed product Price relates on variety and appearance Price relates on variety and appearance Orchard : graded into small, medium and large Orchard : graded into small, medium and large Market : weight per kg Market : weight per kg Price is higher beg / end of season. Price is higher beg / end of season. Peeled durian price is 3 times higher Peeled durian price is 3 times higher Montong tends to get a higher price Montong tends to get a higher price

19 Marketing-Export Durian is one of significant crops for export Durian is one of significant crops for export The largest exporter of fresh and frozen The largest exporter of fresh and frozen Major market: Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong Major market: Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong Packing in corrugated carton or wooden crate Packing in corrugated carton or wooden crate Market for frozen durian : USA, Canada, Australia, Europe Market for frozen durian : USA, Canada, Australia, Europe

20 Thai Production ,800 Tons , ,000 World production 1,400,000 Tons

21 Conclusion Land use has been changed and impact durian production in some areas Land use has been changed and impact durian production in some areas Breeding development : commercial + wild Breeding development : commercial + wild Improve quality of frozen durian Improve quality of frozen durian High respond from market High respond from market

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