Presentation on theme: "Figurative Language is also called figures of speech. It changes the literal meaning of words to express complexity, to capture a physical or sensory effect,"— Presentation transcript:
Figurative Language is also called figures of speech. It changes the literal meaning of words to express complexity, to capture a physical or sensory effect, or to extend meaning. There are a number of figures of speech. Some of the more common ones are:
Simile Making a comparison between unlike things, using “ like ” or “ as. ” Forrest Gump ’ s famous simile is “ Life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you ’ re gonna get. ”
Metaphor Making a comparison between unlike things without the use “ like ” or “ as. ” An example is, “ Your eyes are the windows to your soul. ” – Immanuel Kant.
Hyberbole An exaggeration. For example: I told you a million times to be quiet. You never speak to me. The teacher gave us tons of work. He ate a thousand pounds of pizza.
Personification Giving human qualities to an animal, thing or idea. The wind screamed my name. The window flew open. The book jumped out of my locker.
Narrator There are 3 types: Protagonist - main character Observer - person who is indirectly involved in the story Non-participant - not at all involved, can be omniscient (knows everything) Someone who tells the story.
Tone The attitude an author takes toward the audience, subject or character. The tone is conveyed through the author’s words and details. Think of when someone says, “Don’t use that tone with me!” Your tone can change the meaning of what you say.
Theme A theme is the main idea of a story, or the message the author is conveying. This message is usually about life, society or human nature. Flashbacks A scene in a narrative that returns to an earlier time.
Irony is a literary device for conveying meaning by saying the exact opposite of what is really meant. (Sarcasm is one kind of irony. It is praise which is really an insult. Sarcasm generally involves malice, the desire to put someone down, for example “ This is my brilliant son who failed out of college. ”
Life is filled with ironies. Listen to the following TRUE accounts … 1.The average cost of rehabilitating a seal after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska was $80,000. At a special ceremony, two of the most expensively saved animals were released back into the wild amid cheers and applause from onlookers. A minute later, they were both eaten by a killer whale. 2.Iraqi terrorist Khay Rahnajet didn ’ t pay enough postage on a letter bomb. It came back with “ return to sender ” stamped on it. Forgetting it was the bomb, he opened it and was blown to bits.
Dramatic Monologue Dramatic says that it could be acted out, and is a form of drama, while monologue defines it as a speech that one person makes, either to themselves or to another. A dramatic monologue is written to reveal both the situation at hand and the character herself.
Genre Genre is a French word meaning kind or type. The major genres in literature are poetry, fiction, drama and essays. It can also refer to more specific types of literature such as comedy, tragedy, epic poetry or science fiction.
Genre Narrative text is a story. (usually fiction) Informational or expository is written to inform, to explain, to describe or to present information. (usually nonfiction) Persuasive Essay is writing designed to convince reader to view things from the author ’ s point of view.
Genre Biographical text is an account of an individuals life, written by another person Proverbs or Maxims are old sayings which illustrate a truth. “ An apple a day keeps the doctor away ” doesn ’ t mean you have to eat apples everyday. The general truth being communicated is that a diet that is rich in fruits can keep one healthy and not in need of medical care.
Literary Terms Theme Tone Mood Stanza Drama Foil Character
Mood Mood is the emotion that YOU feel while you’re reading. Some literature makes you feel sad, others joyful, still others angry.
Stanza When a poem is divided into groups of lines, often with a regular pattern, these groups are known as stanzas or verses.
Drama This is another word for play. That’s when characters tell a story in a theatrical performance.
Foil Character This may be an unfamiliar term. A foil is a person who is paired with another character to develop the latter’s traits and personality by contrast. A foil is much like the twin character in class, rank, and background, but has opposing characteristics that provide a mirror to those of the paired character.
Combining Sentences Sentences can be combined by using three punctuation marks: the dash (-), the colon (:), the semi-colon (;). You can also use coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but, so) To combine sentences (clauses) that are grammatically equal.
Combining Sentences A dash (-) is used to add more information about some part of your sentence. It is rather informal and although you may see it when you read, it is better to avoid this punctuation in your writing.
Combining Sentences A colon (:) is also used to add more information and especially to give examples of something in the sentence. What follows a colon may be a clause (He is a great athlete: he plays soccer, baseball and basketball.) or a group of words that cannot stand by themselves (He plays many sports: soccer, baseball and basketball.)
Combining Sentences A semi-colon (;) is used to connect clauses and is the most important punctuation mark for combining sentences. It can be used alone to connect clauses (He ’ s not heavy; he ’ s my brother.) It can also be used to connect clauses together with special linking words such as however, moreover, therefore.
Combining Sentences Sample Question: Choose the answer that is the most effective substitute for each underlined part of the sentence. If no substitution is necessary, choose “ Leave as is. ” The Alaska rivers are clear and sparkling in summer however; they are frozen in winter. (A) in summer, however they are frozen in winter. (B) in summer, however, they are frozen in winter. (C) in summer: however they are frozen in winter. (D) Leave as is.
Combining Sentences Solution: What punctuation mark joins the two thoughts into one sentence? A semicolon joins them, but the semicolon is in the wrong place. “ However ” goes with the second sentence, so the semicolon needs to be placed before it. The correct answer is B. The Alaska rivers are clear and sparkling in summer however; they are frozen in winter. (A) in summer, however they are frozen in winter. (B) in summer, however, they are frozen in winter. (C) in summer: however they are frozen in winter. (D) Leave as is.
Writing on the CAHSEE There are three strands: Writing Strategies Writing Conventions Writing Applications
Writing on the CAHSEE Writing Strategies 12 test questions that ask you to read a rough draft of an essay and make modifications to improve the thesis statement or topic sentences. You will also have to use synthesize information or revise the writing to improve the logic and coherence of the paragraph. Combining sentences is included in this section.
Writing on the CAHSEE Writing Conventions 15 test questions that test your understanding of grammar and your knowledge in the mechanics of punctuation (e.g. semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens). You will also have to identify and use clauses and understand sentence construction (parallel structure, proper placement of modifiers, etc.).
Writing on the CAHSEE Writing Application On the writing portion of the CAHSEE exam, you will be given a “ Writing Task ” which is an essay question. You may be asked to do one of the following: Biographical Narrative Response to Literature Expository Essay Persuasive Essay Business Letter
Writing on the CAHSEE Biographical Narrative: This writing is often about a real person who is important to you.
Writing on the CAHSEE Response to Literature: You read a passage [literature], and write an essay [response] based on that passage.
Writing on the CAHSEE Expository Essay: Exposition is most often nonfiction, meaning that it deals with real people, things, events and places. The question may ask you to write about a moment in history and its importance in today ’ s world.
Writing on the CAHSEE Persuasive Essay: A persuasive essays ask you to defend a position or issue you support. An issue is something about which people disagree. The individuals who score these essays want you to include arguments of those who disagree with you, then explain why your argument is stronger. A sample question may ask you to write an essay for your school paper in which you convince the readers of the importance of getting rid of the trash and making the school more attractive.
Writing on the CAHSEE Business Letter: When you ’ re writing a business letter, your purpose may be to inform, to suggest, to complain or to argue.
Writing on the CAHSEE #1. Remember Make sure to answer all parts of the writing task. If the question is asking you to describe the main characters personality and emotions, make sure to address both.
Writing on the CAHSEE # 2. Remember Make sure you have the correct structure with a strong introduction, body and conclusion. Use specific details and examples from the passage to demonstrate your understanding of the main idea ’ s and the author ’ s purpose. Vary your sentences to make your writing more interesting.
Writing on the CAHSEE # 3. Remember Check for mistakes in grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization and sentence formation.
Writing on the CAHSEE Other Key Points Always include the name of the story, article, or essay when you write a response to literature.
Writing on the CAHSEE Other Key Points When you give evidence to support your argument, it should be explicit and direct (or specific textual details and quotes to support the thesis and main idea) instead of implicit or indirect (in the form of summary).