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Fishery / aquaculture products. „Definition” – (EC) Regulation No 853/2004 All seawater and freshwater animals All seawater and freshwater animals –(except.

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Presentation on theme: "Fishery / aquaculture products. „Definition” – (EC) Regulation No 853/2004 All seawater and freshwater animals All seawater and freshwater animals –(except."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fishery / aquaculture products

2 „Definition” – (EC) Regulation No 853/2004 All seawater and freshwater animals All seawater and freshwater animals –(except for live bivalve molluscs, live echinoderms, live tunicates and live marine gastropods, and all mammals, reptiles and frogs) whether wild or farmed and whether wild or farmed and including all edible forms, parts and products of such animals including all edible forms, parts and products of such animals

3 Consumption of fish and fishery products Seaside countries Seaside countries World: Mean is about 16 kg per capita World: Mean is about 16 kg per capita Norway, Spain: 48 kg per capita Norway, Spain: 48 kg per capita Japan: 65 kg per capita Japan: 65 kg per capita Hungary: 3.5 kg per capita Hungary: 3.5 kg per capita

4 Consumption of fish and fishery products World consumption: 130 million tons World consumption: 130 million tons 70% natural water (seawater) 70% natural water (seawater) 30% aquaculture (“Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants.”) 30% aquaculture (“Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants.”)

5 General food safety aspects of fishery products Healthy but!: Healthy but!: High water content: 78-82% High water content: 78-82% pH: ≥ 6.0 → perishable pH: ≥ 6.0 → perishable Can be contaminated by microbes, parasites harmful to human consumers Can be contaminated by microbes, parasites harmful to human consumers Can contain residues and other chemicals Can contain residues and other chemicals

6 Hygiene requirements of production and distribution – vessels (Reg. 853/2004) Vessels: Vessels: –Must be constructed so as not to cause contamination of products with bilge-water, sewage, smoke, fuel, oil/grease or other substances –Surfaces must be suitable corrosion-resistant, smooth and easy to clean Vessels are to preserve fresh fishery products for more than 24 hours Vessels are to preserve fresh fishery products for more than 24 hours –Must be equipped with hold tanks/containers for storage the products at appropriate temperature –Tanks must incorporate devices for achieving a uniform temperature throughout the tanks (6 hours after loading ≤3°C; 16 hours after loading ≤0°C)

7 Hygiene requirements of production and distribution – vessels (Reg. 853/2004) Freezer vessels: Freezer vessels: –(bleeding, heading, gutting, removal of fins  freezing and wrapping/packaging) Equipment to lower and maintain ≤-18°C core temperature Equipment to lower and maintain ≤-18°C core temperature Drinking-water or clean seawater used Drinking-water or clean seawater used

8 Hygiene requirements of production and distribution – vessels (Reg. 853/2004) Factory vessels: Factory vessels: –(bleeding, heading, gutting, removal of fins, filleting, slicing, skinning/shucking, mincing or processing  chilling, freezing and wrapping/packaging) Must have Must have –A receiving area for taking fish on board which allow the successive catch to be separated –A hygienic system for conveying fishery products to work area

9 Hygiene requirements of production and distribution – vessels (Reg. 853/2004) Factory vessels: Factory vessels: Must have Must have –Work area large enough and prevents contamination –Storage areas for the finished products –A separate place for packaging materials –Equipment for disposing waste directly into the sea or into a watertight tank –Equipment, instruments and surfaces are suitable corrosion- resistant, smooth and easy to clean

10 Hygiene requirements of production and distribution – vessels (Reg. 853/2004) Factory vessels where fish are headed and/or gutted on board: Factory vessels where fish are headed and/or gutted on board: –Processes have to carried out as soon as possible after capture –Must be washed immediately and thoroughly (potable water, clean sea water) –The viscera must be removed as soon as possible –Livers and roes (intended for human consumption) must be preserved under ice, at a temperature of melting ice or be frozen

11 Hygiene requirements after loading and establishments on shore Heading and gutting must be carried out hygienically as soon as possible after landed Heading and gutting must be carried out hygienically as soon as possible after landed Products must be washed thoroughly with potable water Products must be washed thoroughly with potable water Filleting and cutting must be carried out so as to avoid contamination or spoilage of fillets and slices Filleting and cutting must be carried out so as to avoid contamination or spoilage of fillets and slices  must be wrapped/packaged and chilled  must be wrapped/packaged and chilled Containers used for the dispatch or storage of unpackaged products stored under ice must ensure that melt water doesn’t remain in contact with the products Containers used for the dispatch or storage of unpackaged products stored under ice must ensure that melt water doesn’t remain in contact with the products Equipment to lower and maintain ≤-18°C core temperature Equipment to lower and maintain ≤-18°C core temperature Stores must be equipped with temperature recorder Stores must be equipped with temperature recorder

12 Preservation methods - spoilage Spoilage is usually caused by Pseudomonas species, Shewanella putrefaciens and (Acinetobacter and Moraxella –chilled!) Spoilage is usually caused by Pseudomonas species, Shewanella putrefaciens and (Acinetobacter and Moraxella –chilled!) Spoilage  proteins of fish  histamine and other biogenic amines  scombrotoxicosis (“scombroid fish poisoning”; sardine, mackerel, tuna): vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, urticaria, nausea (allergic reactions) Spoilage  proteins of fish  histamine and other biogenic amines  scombrotoxicosis (“scombroid fish poisoning”; sardine, mackerel, tuna): vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, urticaria, nausea (allergic reactions) Prevention: fast chilling to ≤4°C Prevention: fast chilling to ≤4°C

13 Preservation methods - spoilage Spoiled fish: Spoiled fish: malodorous with acid, bitter, ammoniac character, covered by sticky, yellowish brown mucus malodorous with acid, bitter, ammoniac character, covered by sticky, yellowish brown mucus The scales can be elevated and removed The scales can be elevated and removed the skin is wrinkled, discoloured and also can easily be removed the skin is wrinkled, discoloured and also can easily be removed The eyes are fade, opalescence, hollowed The eyes are fade, opalescence, hollowed The gill cover is elevated, red-brown, the gills are dry, greyish or sticky The gill cover is elevated, red-brown, the gills are dry, greyish or sticky The musculature is loose, soft and reddish brown (discoloured), friable The musculature is loose, soft and reddish brown (discoloured), friable the abdomen is deformed, the anus is opened, often prolapsed the abdomen is deformed, the anus is opened, often prolapsed The viscera are loose, light coloured, the mucosa is destructed The viscera are loose, light coloured, the mucosa is destructed

14 Preservation methods Salting Salting Smoking Smoking Marinading/marinating Marinading/marinating Canning (canned fish in oil) Canning (canned fish in oil)

15 Salting Most commonly dry salting (herring, sardine) Most commonly dry salting (herring, sardine) After capture, gutting → salting (20kg NaCl/100kg fish) → After capture, gutting → salting (20kg NaCl/100kg fish) → Storage in staunch/hermetically closed barrel (0…+5°C) Storage in staunch/hermetically closed barrel (0…+5°C) Ripening/aging (25-35 day) Ripening/aging (25-35 day) Spoilage caused Spoilage caused –In barrel: by halophil bacteria, anaerobes, yeast –Lightly salted products: lactic acid bacteria, psychrotophic bacteria –Dry, salted products: moulds CAVIAR: is the processed, salted roe of certain fish, mostly the sturgeon (black) and the salmon (red). CAVIAR: is the processed, salted roe of certain fish, mostly the sturgeon (black) and the salmon (red).

16 Smoking Cold smoking (20°C, few days) Cold smoking (20°C, few days) Hot smoking (90-120°C, few hours) Hot smoking (90-120°C, few hours) 1. melt/defrost the fish 1. melt/defrost the fish 2. classification 2. classification 3. washing 3. washing 4. salting in salt solution ( minutes) → 1.2-2% salt concentration 4. salting in salt solution ( minutes) → 1.2-2% salt concentration 5. string/hanging 5. string/hanging 6. smoking 6. smoking 7. drying by air 7. drying by air 8. packaging 8. packaging

17 Smoking Phases of hot smoking: Phases of hot smoking: –Drying of surface layers of fish – 40-60°C, min –Heat treatment/cooking in hot smoke – °C, min –Smoking in dense smoke – °C, min

18 Marinading/marinating Preservation method based on using salt and vinegar solution Preservation method based on using salt and vinegar solution Special taste, tissues become tender, soft Special taste, tissues become tender, soft Cold or hot marinading or combined with crumbing Cold or hot marinading or combined with crumbing

19 1. Cold marinading/marinating Raw material: fresh, frozen, salted filleted fish (herring) Raw material: fresh, frozen, salted filleted fish (herring) Treated with 3-5% NaCl solution (30 min) Treated with 3-5% NaCl solution (30 min) Ripening in 6% vinegar and 10% NaCl solution for 3-4 days at 10-15°C Ripening in 6% vinegar and 10% NaCl solution for 3-4 days at 10-15°C Packaging into can, bottles or barrels and Packaging into can, bottles or barrels and Filled up with 2% vinegar 4-6% NaCl solution and sugar, spices and onion are added Filled up with 2% vinegar 4-6% NaCl solution and sugar, spices and onion are added Shelf-life: few weeks – few months Shelf-life: few weeks – few months

20 2. Hot marinading/marinating Raw material: herring, eel, lamprey, cod, etc. Raw material: herring, eel, lamprey, cod, etc. Heading, gutting, washing Heading, gutting, washing Salting with 3-5% NaCl solution Salting with 3-5% NaCl solution Washing Washing Heat treatment in solution containing 1-2% vinegar, 6- 8% NaCl and spices at 80-85°C for min Heat treatment in solution containing 1-2% vinegar, 6- 8% NaCl and spices at 80-85°C for min Chilling with water shower Chilling with water shower Filled into glass, plastic or metal container and Filled into glass, plastic or metal container and Solution containing 2% vinegar, 3% NaCl and 4-5% gelatine is added Solution containing 2% vinegar, 3% NaCl and 4-5% gelatine is added Shelf-life: chilled for few month Shelf-life: chilled for few month

21 3. Crumbed marinade Raw material: fillet of herring, cod, mackerel, lamprey, flat-fish (dab), etc. Raw material: fillet of herring, cod, mackerel, lamprey, flat-fish (dab), etc. Heading, gutting Heading, gutting Salting Salting Roll the fish in the flour Roll the fish in the flour Heat treatment in oil at °C for 5-12 min Heat treatment in oil at °C for 5-12 min Chilling Chilling Solution containing 2-3.5% vinegar, 3-5% NaCl, spices and sweetener is added Solution containing 2-3.5% vinegar, 3-5% NaCl, spices and sweetener is added Shelf-life: longer than the others Shelf-life: longer than the others

22 Canning (canned fish in oil) Raw material: sardine, eel, tuna, etc. Raw material: sardine, eel, tuna, etc. Heading, gutting Heading, gutting Classification in salt solution Classification in salt solution Filled into can and Filled into can and Oil is added Oil is added Sterilisation Sterilisation Ripening in can for 1-2 years Ripening in can for 1-2 years Shelf-life: Shelf-life:

23 Official control on production, distribution and fishery products According to Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 laying down specific rules for the organisation of official control on products of animal origin intended for human consumption According to Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 laying down specific rules for the organisation of official control on products of animal origin intended for human consumption

24 Control on production and distribution Production and distribution must be controlled by official veterinarian regularly from time to time Production and distribution must be controlled by official veterinarian regularly from time to time Vessels, establishments on land, fish auctions, wholesale markets, conditions of storage and transport, in particular according to the followings: Vessels, establishments on land, fish auctions, wholesale markets, conditions of storage and transport, in particular according to the followings:

25 Control on production and distribution a, On vessels the cleanliness of establishments, their facilities and equipments, and staff hygiene (at the port) a, On vessels the cleanliness of establishments, their facilities and equipments, and staff hygiene (at the port) b, regular check on hygiene conditions of landing and first sale b, regular check on hygiene conditions of landing and first sale c, in case of establishment on land: c, in case of establishment on land: –Whether the conditions of approval are still fulfilled –Whether the fishery products are handled correctly –For compliance of hygiene and temperature requirements (GHP, technological and staff hygiene) d, check of the conditions of storage and transport d, check of the conditions of storage and transport

26 Official control on fishery products A. Organoleptic examinations A. Organoleptic examinations B. Freshness indicators B. Freshness indicators C. Histamine C. Histamine D. Residues and contaminants D. Residues and contaminants E. Microbiological checks E. Microbiological checks F. Parasites F. Parasites G. Poisonous fishery products G. Poisonous fishery products

27 Official control on fishery products - A. Organoleptic examinations Random organoleptic checks must be carried out by the food business operator at all stages of production, processing and distribution. Random organoleptic checks must be carried out by the food business operator at all stages of production, processing and distribution. Aim of these checks is to verify compliance with the criteria. Aim of these checks is to verify compliance with the criteria. Competent official veterinarian must check during landing/loading or before distribution every batch to verify whether satisfactory or not for human consumption (organoleptic examination with sampling if necessary) Competent official veterinarian must check during landing/loading or before distribution every batch to verify whether satisfactory or not for human consumption (organoleptic examination with sampling if necessary)

28 Official control on fishery products - B. Freshness indicators When the organoleptic examination reveals any doubt as to the freshness of the fishery products, samples may be taken and subjected to laboratory tests to determine the levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N). When the organoleptic examination reveals any doubt as to the freshness of the fishery products, samples may be taken and subjected to laboratory tests to determine the levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N). The criteria laid down in Reg. (EC) No 2074/2005: mgN/100g. The criteria laid down in Reg. (EC) No 2074/2005: mgN/100g. When the organoleptic examination gives cause to suspect the presence of other conditions which may affect human health, appropriate samples are to be taken for verification purposes. When the organoleptic examination gives cause to suspect the presence of other conditions which may affect human health, appropriate samples are to be taken for verification purposes.

29 Official control on fishery products - C. Histamine Random testing for histamine is to be carried out by the food-business operator to verify compliance with the permitted levels laid down in Reg. (EC) No 2073/2005. Random testing for histamine is to be carried out by the food-business operator to verify compliance with the permitted levels laid down in Reg. (EC) No 2073/2005. Food category Metabolites Sampling plan Limits (mg/kg) Stage where the criterion applies ncmM Fishery products from fish species associated with a high amount of histidine (mackerel, herring, anchovy, etc.) Histamine Products placed on the market during their shelf-life Fishery products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, manufactured from fish species associated with a high amount of histidine Histamine Products placed on the market during their shelf-life

30 Official control on fishery products - D. Residues and contaminants Fishery products can not contain residues and contaminants such amount which is higher than lay down in Reg. (EC) No 1881/2006 Fishery products can not contain residues and contaminants such amount which is higher than lay down in Reg. (EC) No 1881/2006

31 Official control on fishery products - E. Microbiological checks Fishery products can not contain micro- organism dangerous to human health Fishery products can not contain micro- organism dangerous to human health (No criteria for fishery products in 2073/2005) (No criteria for fishery products in 2073/2005)

32 Official control on fishery products - F. Parasites Visual inspection associated with self-control system for parasites is to be carried out by the food-business operator according to Reg. (EC) No 2074/2005 Visual inspection associated with self-control system for parasites is to be carried out by the food-business operator according to Reg. (EC) No 2074/2005 Inspection have to be carried out of representative samples Inspection have to be carried out of representative samples Official control of fish and fishery products based on random sampling method for invest the presence of parasites Official control of fish and fishery products based on random sampling method for invest the presence of parasites

33 Official control on fishery products - G. Poisonous fishery products Checks are to take place to ensure that the following fishery products are not placed on the market: Checks are to take place to ensure that the following fishery products are not placed on the market: 1. poisonous fish of the following families are not placed on the market: Tetraodontidae, Molidae, Diodontidae and Canthigasteridae; and 1. poisonous fish of the following families are not placed on the market: Tetraodontidae, Molidae, Diodontidae and Canthigasteridae; and 2. fishery products containing biotoxins such as Ciguatera or other toxins dangerous to human health. 2. fishery products containing biotoxins such as Ciguatera or other toxins dangerous to human health.

34 DECISIONS AFTER CONTROLS Fishery products are to be declared unfit for human consumption if: 1. organoleptic, chemical, physical or microbiological checks or checks for parasites have shown that they are not in compliance with the relevant Community legislation; 1. organoleptic, chemical, physical or microbiological checks or checks for parasites have shown that they are not in compliance with the relevant Community legislation; 2. they contain in their edible parts contaminants or residues in excess of the limits or at levels where the calculated dietary intake would exceed the acceptable daily or weekly intake for humans; 2. they contain in their edible parts contaminants or residues in excess of the limits or at levels where the calculated dietary intake would exceed the acceptable daily or weekly intake for humans; 3. they derive from poisonous fish, fishery products containing biotoxins 3. they derive from poisonous fish, fishery products containing biotoxins 4. the competent authority considers that they may constitute a risk to public or animal health or are for any other reason not suitable for human consumption. 4. the competent authority considers that they may constitute a risk to public or animal health or are for any other reason not suitable for human consumption.

35 Inspection of live, fresh and frozen fish; declaration of fitness for human consumption Fish must be inspected by official veterinarian Fish must be inspected by official veterinarian Batch inspection Batch inspection In case of suspicion on presence of infectious or parasitic disease, incidence of pathogen microbes, residues or toxins  In case of suspicion on presence of infectious or parasitic disease, incidence of pathogen microbes, residues or toxins  Detailed inspection Detailed inspection

36 Inspection of live fish Veterinarian inspection have to be carried out particular on: Veterinarian inspection have to be carried out particular on: Viability and general health status Viability and general health status Presence of infectious or parasitic disease Presence of infectious or parasitic disease Injuries and organoleptical changes Injuries and organoleptical changes

37 Inspection of live fish Fish is viable and healthy if: Fish is viable and healthy if: Gills open and close rhythmically (rhythmic respiration) Gills open and close rhythmically (rhythmic respiration) Movement of muscle is active Movement of muscle is active In water swim agile In water swim agile Skin, scales are intact Skin, scales are intact No sign of disease No sign of disease Appropriate/typical smell Appropriate/typical smell

38 Inspection of live fish Live fish is not fit for human consumption: Live fish is not fit for human consumption: a, Spring viraemia of carp (SVC), Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN); a, Spring viraemia of carp (SVC), Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN); b, in case of following diseases and extensive or disgusting changes: b, in case of following diseases and extensive or disgusting changes: –Fish pox (carp pox/warts ), Saprolegniosis (water mould disease), "ich" or "white spot disease,„ (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis) –Presence of tapeworm/ round-worm, –Flukes (Monogenean flukes are primarily parasites of gills, skin and the oral cavity, intestine, ovipositor and urinary tract) –Leech infection –Presence of other external parasites in high amount –Lesion of skin (ulcerated dermatitis, wound, mechanical injury) –Malodour in live

39 Inspection of fresh fish Have to be kept at the temperature of melting ice (0…+5°C) Have to be kept at the temperature of melting ice (0…+5°C) Fish flesh/meat is not frozen but spoilage is much more slower Fish flesh/meat is not frozen but spoilage is much more slower Veterinarian inspection have to be carried out particular on: Veterinarian inspection have to be carried out particular on: –Freshness –Injuries –Sign of spoilage Have to be checked: Have to be checked: –Malodour –Skin, mucus, scales –Fins, gills –Musculature, –Abdomen, intestines

40 Inspection of fresh fish Not fit for human consumption: Not fit for human consumption: Ruined (except it was due to the lack of oxygen)? Ruined (except it was due to the lack of oxygen)? The musculature is infected with bacteria pathogens for humans, The musculature is infected with bacteria pathogens for humans, Presence of parasites in liver or muscle Presence of parasites in liver or muscle Same diseases as in case of live fish Same diseases as in case of live fish Following extensive or disgusting changes: Following extensive or disgusting changes: –The skin is wrinkled, ruptured –Scale is disordered, loose, easily can be removed –The eye-ball is withdrawn, or prolapsed or covered by an unspecified layer or the cornea is dull, greyish –Gills are greyish-red, or dirty-brownish-green, definitively mucilaginous, still evil- smelling even after washing –The surface of fish is mucilaginous and smelling –The musculature is greatly discoloured, non-elastic, keep the fingerprint, the wall of abdomen can be easily ruptured Rotting, stuffiness Rotting, stuffiness Intoxicated, having malodour related to foreign material, or chemical contamination, or level of residues are higher than the MRL Intoxicated, having malodour related to foreign material, or chemical contamination, or level of residues are higher than the MRL The histamine content higher than the prescribed threshold value The histamine content higher than the prescribed threshold value If the fish was treated with antibiotic or other drug and is caught within the withdrawal period If the fish was treated with antibiotic or other drug and is caught within the withdrawal period

41 Inspection of frozen fish Have to check frozen and defrost also: Have to check frozen and defrost also: skin skin Serous membrane Serous membrane Cut surface Cut surface Smell Smell Musculature (colour, dryness, flexibility) Musculature (colour, dryness, flexibility) In case of marine fish the presence of parasite of muscle (5 fish/batch) In case of marine fish the presence of parasite of muscle (5 fish/batch)

42 Inspection of frozen fish Not fit for human consumption: Not fit for human consumption: If the animal was apparently diseased before freezing If the animal was apparently diseased before freezing It was spoiled before freezing It was spoiled before freezing It was re-frozen It was re-frozen Infected with pathogen microbes Infected with pathogen microbes It contains facultative pathogen or saprophyte bacteria above the threshold value It contains facultative pathogen or saprophyte bacteria above the threshold value Presence of extensive malodour for any reason Presence of extensive malodour for any reason Any of the following abnormalities can be detected in extended or disgusting forms: Any of the following abnormalities can be detected in extended or disgusting forms: –The skin or the surface of section is contaminated or dried out –The skin is ruptured and detached from the musculature or it is easily separable –The gill has malodour after defrosting –The musculature is easily ruptured and malodorous –The musculature is dull and discoloured (yellowish-grey) Intoxicated with dangerous chemical or other foreign material or if it contains any kind of contaminating chemical substance or residue above the predetermined threshold level or it is intensively malodorous by chemical substance Intoxicated with dangerous chemical or other foreign material or if it contains any kind of contaminating chemical substance or residue above the predetermined threshold level or it is intensively malodorous by chemical substance The histamine concentration is above the threshold value depicted in regulations The histamine concentration is above the threshold value depicted in regulations


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