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© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 7: Alternative Baking Processes.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 7: Alternative Baking Processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 7: Alternative Baking Processes

2 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Introduction Alternative Methods of Baking Alterations may be to fermentation, baking, cooling, storage and distribution. Techniques include: –Par-baked –Frozen Dough –Pre-proofed Frozen

3 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking Par-Baked It has been used in the United States since the 1950’s In the United States it is known as “brown and serve” Par-bake of French type products only became popular in the 1990’s

4 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Par-Bake Process Par baked process falls between traditional baking and frozen dough It has the same first steps of traditional baking It also has the same storage and /or freezing of frozen dough The only step which applies to this technique is the par baking It has two baking process, two cooling process and storage at the par baked stage

5 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Formulation Traditional formulation can be used it may include any prefermented dough like sponge or poolish Hydration is reduced to encourage a fuller volume of the par baked item. Sugar levels must be low to avoid crust coloration during par baking Shortening levels must also be low to avoid bread collapsing due to weaker structure. Formulation may also include other materials like bran, whole wheat flour and rye flour etc.

6 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Mixing and Fermentation These steps are identical to the traditional method. All methods to improve the dough strength and flavor may be included in the process include the use of preferments. Mixing may also include the use of an autolyse to reduce mixing time and promote the preservation of the bread flavor, an increase in bread volume and an improvement of crumb structure.

7 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Dividing and Pre-Shaping The par baked product’s ability to maintain its structure is based on the weight and shape of the dough pieces The shape and diameter of the product will determine if it can be successfully par baked Product tend to collapse if the diameter is too big Baguettes and batards are better suited than boules in the par bake process

8 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Resting and Shaping This step is carried out in the traditional way The weight and dimension of the shaped dough is an important for maintaining part baked bread’s structure and rigidness This is important as it is subjected to much handling after part baking

9 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Proofing and Scoring Proof time is generally shorter than traditional proofing Over proofing will result in a weaker structure Scoring should be deeper because of the stiffer and under proofed dough

10 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked First Bake This is the only step unique to par baking The objective of par baking is to obtain a sufficiently rigid semi-finished product The goal is to form a superficial skin without browning Crust formation leads to risks of flaking during the final bake, an increased water loss and acceleration of staling

11 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Baking Techniques: High temperature, short time –Favors the opening of the cuts and ovenspring –If the baking is too quick, it will brown before the structure is set –The same goes for doughs that are too large Low temperature, long time –Creates a thicker rigid skin without browning –Cuts will be less open, volume smaller and the moisture loss greater

12 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Cooling Par baked bread should not be stacked when cooling When air cooled, it loses about 4% of its weight per hour compared to 2.5% for a fully baked product The temperature and humidity of the cooling room can be controlled to reduce this weight loss Alternatively, it is possible to shorten the cooling time and freeze the product

13 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked After Cooling-Fresh Par-Baked Bread Considered “fresh” par baked if product is not frozen after par baking The cooling, storage and distribution are usually carried out on baking trays Shelf life is limited to a maximum of 4 days but rarely exceed 2 days Product subjected to drying, rapid staling at room temperature and risk of mold growth

14 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked After Cooling-Frozen Par-Baked Bread Freezing stops the development of micro organisms and mold growth Freezing also stops the process of staling Staling rate it at its maximum between 20ºc and -10ºc It is best to cover this large staling temperature span as quickly as possible Unfortunately, par baked products freeze more slowly than raw dough

15 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked After Cooling-Distribution The major disadvantage about par baking is the space requirements for freezing, storage and transport Par baked baguette takes up approximately 4 times as much space as an equal number of frozen dough There is no apparent moisture loss even after 7 weeks of freezer storage.

16 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Defrosting is quicker than for frozen dough A constant storage temperature is crucial to prevent partial defrosting which can result in drying, condensation, surface flaking and staling There is no weight loss during defrosting

17 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Second or Final Bake Final bake can be carried out in any oven Steam on defrosted or frozen par baked products will result in less moisture loss Not defrosting saves time, reduces moisture loss and limits staling before baking Final baking forms the crust, gives it color by drying, carmalization and Maillard reaction and freshens the crumb

18 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Cooling Cooling loss is identical to traditional baking: 2.5% in 1 hour

19 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Par-Baked Par-Baked Bread Conclusion Compromise between frozen dough and traditional process Most versatile of alternative methods –Use of preferments, different flours Ability to serve fresh bread all day Requires technical knowledge and significant investment in equipment

20 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking Frozen Dough Process The baking process is stopped after shaping. The products are stored at -18ºc Efficient for larger production with distribution and baking possible to several bake-off points Specific processes must be followed to ensure integrity of final baked breads

21 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Two main problems: Gas production –Keeping the yeast active and maintaining its gassing power Gas retention –Maintaining the physical properties of the dough and its ability to retain gas

22 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Flour Low Protein Bread Flour Higher protein quality vs protein quantity –Higher dough hydration encourages ice crystal formation Dough needs to be able to withstand machinability as well as thawing process.

23 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Water Temperature should be close to 0 ºc (+1 / +2 ºc) Percent should be low enough to achieve a stiffer dough –To reduce ice crystallization phenomena –To reduce tendency to sag during thawing

24 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Yeast Maintaining the stability of yeast and its fermentation power depends on : –Its physiological state before deep freezing –Whether or not fermentation has started before freezing –Freezing method used: time, temperature, and final core temperature. –Thawing method used: fast or slow –Storage conditions: temperature and length of time Formation of ice crystals during freezing can damage yeast cells. This depends on the crystal size which depends on the rate of freezing

25 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Yeast dosage Fermentation power decreases during product storage time –Higher dosage necessary to compensate for loss of fermentation power –Normally 1.5 to 2 times normal yeast level –Too high dosage may have adverse effects on physical reaction and gas retention of the dough

26 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Salt Slightly more salt is used to strengthen the gluten and add flavor –Not more than 2.5 % Also beneficial in delaying the start of the fermentation

27 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Sugar If any is used, quantity should be reduced to compensate for reduced fermentation Some sugar may benefit the frozen dough process by inhibiting the formation of ice crystals

28 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Dough Conditioners Reduces effect of lack of gluten conditioning during bulk fermentation Assists dough in maintaining shape during thawing Improve gas retention during proofing

29 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Dough Conditioners Reduces effect of lack of gluten conditioning during bulk fermentation Assists dough maintain shape during thawing Improve gas retention

30 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Dough Conditioner Usage Fungal amylase Too much may cause extensibility and sagging during thawing Oxidizing agents Ascorbic acid or others Emulsifiers: DATEM SSL

31 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Mixing Mix to obtain cold dough to limit start of fermentation Give maximum development for gas retention Produce firmer dough to limit sagging during thawing

32 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Fermentation Time between end of mixing and placing the shaped dough in blast freezer must be as short as possible

33 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Dividing Must be carried out as soon as mixing is done.

34 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Resting Time and Shaping Resting time of 7 to 10 minutes is necessary for dough to relax This makes it easier to stretch during shaping Slight reshaping necessary after preshape due to lack of dough extensibility Use of reducing agent in formulation will greatly assist in dough relaxation

35 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Blast Freezing Done immediately after shaping to limit start of fermentation Blast freezer should be between -30 to -35ºc Lower blast freezer temperature causes irreversible damage (ice crystal formation)

36 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Packaging Packaging material for frozen dough must be: –Waterproof –Air tight –Flexible and resistance to low temperature (polyethylene) –Sealable

37 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Storage Temperature: –-20ºc (+/- 2 ºc) Time: –Local distribution from 2 to 6 weeks –Export market from 3 to 6 months

38 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Transportation Cold chain must not be broken Products must be kept at -18 / -20ºc Products must be handled with care because they are fragile and break easily

39 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Thawing High level of surface condensation rules out thawing on cloth for ready to proof products Sticking means that thawing must take place in fluted trays Baking on oven hearth is practically impossible unless proofed on special silicon baking mats

40 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Thawing: 3 options Proof box Room temperature Retarder/Proofer

41 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Baking Convection or deck oven Fluted trays must be non - stick Due to excess of fermentable sugars, oven temperature can be lowered and baking time increased Must be carried out be trained staff capable of making judgment on proper thawing process, final proofing time and correct scoring of the dough

42 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Other Options Frozen dough blocks. –Shaped loaves may be proofed on linen Viennoiserie –Structure of enriched doughs is protected from fats, eggs and sugars

43 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Frozen Dough Process Conclusion of the Frozen Dough Process Provides flexibility on production schedule and convenience for end user Ingredient, equipment and handling considerations must be taken into consideration Some products can be frozen better than others

44 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking Pre-Proof Frozen Dough Process Freshly baked items available in 20 minutes No need for end user to have specialty equipment or to be trained in evaluating proof Most pre-proof frozen products are Viennoiserie Products are proofed to 75% before freezing

45 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Pre-Proof Frozen Dough Process Ingredients Selection will determine gas retention Flour should have a good quality protein Vital wheat gluten may be added to the dough Dough conditioner typically includes enzymes, oxidizers and emulsifiers to improve dough viscosity and gas retention

46 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Pre-Proof Frozen Dough Process Process Dough should be mixed to optimum gluten development Dough should not be too cold, nor too warm After shaping, products are partially proofed, frozen in a blast freezer, packaged, stored and delivered

47 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Pre-Proof Frozen Dough Process Process End user places frozen product on pan accordingly and bakes Baking time should longer Temperature should be lower

48 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking: Pre-Proof Frozen Dough Process Conclusion of Pre-Proof Frozen Dough Process This process offers convenience to the end user with minimal investment Quality may be lower than traditional methods or par-bake processes Most common application is Viennoiserie Products should be eaten as fresh as possible

49 CHAPTER 7 © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Alternative Methods of Baking Conclusion Par-bake, frozen dough and pre-proof frozen processes afford the baker and end user many options Attention to product formulation and process will ensure quality results The investment in specialty equipment varies by process but for volume production they ensure consistent results


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