Presentation on theme: "Flying in Denmark - a brief introduction to rules and regulations for foreign military aircrews flying in Danish airspace. Last update: 2010-07-29. Prepared."— Presentation transcript:
Flying in Denmark - a brief introduction to rules and regulations for foreign military aircrews flying in Danish airspace. Last update: Prepared by TACDEN Flight Information.
Copenhagen FIR North Sea FL195-FL FT-FL660 Vertical limits: Ground/Sea level to infinity Controlled airspace:
Copenhagen Area Copenhagen Area extends vertically from 1500/2500 FT to FL195. If a flight, or part of a flight, takes place within or above Copenhagen Area, clearance shall be obtained from Copenhagen Approach or ACC Copenhagen respectively.
Airspace classification Class A: Not applicable in Denmark Class B: Not applicable in Denmark Class C : Copenhagen Area and TMA’s within Copenhagen Area All airspace above FL195 Class D : All CTR’s and TMA’s outside Copenhagen Area Class E : Airspace between 3500 FT MSL and FL 195, except North Sea within Copenhagen FIR, and Copenhagen area Class F : Not applicable in Denmark Class G : 1. Airspace from GND/SL to 3500 FT MSL, except Copenhagen Area. 2. North Sea from SL to FL TIZ’s and TIA’s.
Airspace classification Filled areas indicate uncontrolled airspace Sketch only - consult relevant aeronautical charts for exact information
Visual Flight Rules (VFR) 1. For all aircraft operating at 250 KIAS or more, a flight visibility of 8 KM or more is required, except in airspace class G during daylight, when flying at or below 3000 FT MSL or 1000 FT AGL, whichever is the higher 2. Helicopters may operate VFR if flight visibility is equal to, or greater than 800 M, if manoeuvering at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or obstructions in time to avoid collosion. 3. Flight visibility at night will be at least: 8 KM for fighters and other aircraft exceeding 140 KIAS 5 KM for aircraft operated at 140 KIAS or less 3 KM for helicopters operated at 140 KIAS or less
Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Airspace class C, E, G and D (TMA) AltitudeAirspace class Flight visibility Distance from cloud At or above FL 100CDEG8 KM 1500 M horizontally 1000 FT vertically Below FL 100 and above 3000 FT AMSL, or above 1000 FT above terrain, whichever is the higher CDEG5 KM 1500 M horizontally 1000 FT vertically At and below 3000 FT AMSL, or above 1000 FT over terrain, whichever is the higher CDE5 KM 1500 M horizontally 1000 FT vertically G5 KM 3 KM/140 KT Clear of cloud and with the surface in sight
Visual Flight Rules (VFR) VFR flights in Control Zones require meteorological conditions equal to or better than: Control Zones (Airspace Class D): Visibility:8 KM at day and night for fighter aircraft Ceiling1500 FT 5 KM at day and 8 KM at night for other aircraft (When ceiling is between 1500 FT and 2500 FT, separation will be established between military VFR flights and civil IFR and special VFR flights.)
Special VFR Fighters and other aircraft exceeding 140 KIAS 5KM / 8KM1000 FT 1) Clear of clouds Aircraft operating at 140 KIAS or less 3KM / 5KM500 FTClear of clouds Helicopters operating at 140 KIAS or less 800M / 3KM 3) 500 FT 2, 3) - may be approved by ATC in a Control Zone, provided meterological conditions are equal to or better than:
Special VFR Note 1: For fighter and other aircraft operating at 140 KIAS or more, ceiling may be reduced to 500 FT AGL in connection with take off and departure via specific routes during daylight hours. Note 2: For helicopters operating at 140 KIAS or less, ceiling may be reduced to 300 FT AGL in connection with lift off, departure and approach via specific routes during daylight hours. Note 3: In connection with NVG flying visibility may be reduced to 1500 meters and ceiling to 300 ft AGL provided that the crew is able to transition to IFR flight.
General Information Flying with transport- or jet aircraft, below 2000 FT AGL, is not allowed, except when specifically ordered in the Airtask or Exercise Order. 600 metres Min 2000 FT Min 500 FT Light aircraft and helicopters, Transport and jet aircraft Minimum altitude over towns, recreational areas etc. shall always be 2000 FT above highest obstacle within 600 metres. Exempted are light aircraft and helicopters which are allowed down to 500 FT above the highest obstacle within 600 metres. (1000 ft over towns, recreational areas etc.)
General Information Supersonic flying (M.97+) is prohibited, unless specifically ordered, or: 1. Flying above FL100, NM off the coast, heading away from the coast line 2. Flying above FL100, 35 NM+ from the coast, no heading restrictions. Use of afterburner below 5000 ft AGL/ASL is prohibited, except: 1. Flying over the Sea, minimum 2 kilometres off the coast 2. During take-off, touch and go, overshoot 3. During emergencies 4. Attack exercises on shooting ranges or air bases (prior permission from ATC is required!)
Altitude restrictions Over land:Not lower than 500 FT AGL Over towns and recreational areas: Not lower than 2000 FT AGL Over the sea more than 2 km off the coast: I.a.w. national regulations Simulated attacks: Military airfields inside perimeter fence: Not lower than 300 FT AGL Ground targets in civilian terrain: Not lower than 500 FT AGL
Airspeed restrictions The following maximum airspeeds are to be observed over land, including the sea within 2 kilometres off the coast: Above 2000 FT AGL:Subsonic FT AGL:500 KT (GS) FT AGL:480 KT (GS) Below 500 FT AGL:450 KT (GS)
Flight Plan 1. A complete ICAO flight plan must be filed for: - flights outside Copenhagen FIR - flights landing on a civil airfield - IFR flights - night VFR flights above 3000 ft MSL 2. In all other cases, file a reduced flight plan containing: - Callsign /SSR code - Number and type of aircraft - ETD - EET - Mission and area/route - Endurance - Name of Aircraft Commander - flights departing from a civil airfield
VFR flying above 3500 FT Military aircraft flying over Danish territory above 3500 ft, are to contact an Aircraft Controlling Unit (ACU) or ATS unit for flight following/flight information service. Separation to non-operational air traffic: FL460 FL195 min. 5 NM, ormin. 1000FT IFR or Controlled VFR only
Search and Rescue EH-101 or S-61SAR helicopters are based at Skrydstrup (EKSP), Aalborg (EKYT) and Roskilde (EKRK). Crews are on alert H24. Guard frequency is monitored at all military ATS-units and ACU units during their hours of operation.
Bird intensity Bird migration occurs during the whole year, but culminates in the periods end of March to Mid-May (spring migra- tion) and beginning of September to Mid-November (autumn migration). Flying below 1500 FT will involve increased risk of bird strike. Due to technical reasons bird intensity cannot be obtained for København FIR. Crews should follow STANAG 3879 or national procedures for flight in bird migration periods and/or bird contration areas.
ECM ECM guidelines/restrictions in Copenhagen FIR include: 1. Self-protection chaff may be used within the exercise area 2. Chaff longer than 50 cm. must not fall on land including the sea within 2 km off the coast. 3. Active ECM against radar installations will not be employed within 12 NM of any NATO border. 4. The use of IR-flares is not allowed over land including the sea within 2 km off the coast.
Miscellaneous 1. Overdue ATC will start communication search if an aircraft is overdue on ETA + 5 minutes. CALL ATC IF DELAYED, and extend flightplan 2. Radio contact Call ATC 25 NM out for clearance, prior to entering TIA’s, TIZ’s, CTR’s, TMA’s and Copenhagen Area. Maintain listening watch at all times. 3. Transition from VFR to IFR: If unable to maintain VMC in uncontrolled airspace, and unable to obtain IFR clearance prior to going IMC: Climb to and maintain 2500FT until VFR or an IFR clearance is obtained. Request IFR-clearance from Copenhagen ACC or any near-by ATC unit.
Emergency procedures All pilots must be familiar with standard emergency procedures for radio failure and the use of MAYDAY and PAN calls. 1. Triangular patterns can be used in Denmark. Reduced chance of being seen without IFF/SIF: A. Transmitter out, receiver OK: Right hand pattern B. Transmitter out, receiver out: Left hand pattern Squawk EMERGENCY. If possible, fly at FL250 or above at contrail altitude. Await interception. 2. VMC approach with radio U/S: Transmit blind position reports. Squawk 7600 mode 3. Approach via IP, 500 FT AGL, Light flashing, wings rocking. Fly along RWY in use on right side, pull up to downwind at far end, and look for light signals from TWR
Emergency procedures 3. GCA lost communication procedure: If radio contact is lost for more than 1 minute in pattern or five seconds on final approach, climb to MSA on last given heading and contact APPROACH. If landing clearance has been received, land using other NAV AID if applicable. 4. IFF/SIF YES/NO procedure: ATC will ask specific questions which can be answered YES or NO. Squawk Ident for YES, nothing if NO.
Emergency procedures 5. Speechless procedure: (Use tone button or press transmitter) 1 dot”affirmative”, ”roger”, ”wilco” 2 dots”negative” 3 dots”say again” 4 dots”request homing” 1 dash”steady” or ”field in sight” X (-..-)”emergency” 1-9 dotsmeans numbers one through nine 1 dashzero
Restricted airspace Restricted,- and Danger areas are annonunced active on a day-to-day basis by NAV WARNING SUMMARY FOR COPENHAGEN FIR AND ADJACENT WATERS.
Danish bases Runways: Landing aids: Communication: Arrester gear: Karup (EKKA) 09R/27L (main) 9607 x 150 FT PAR, ILS, TACAN, LOCATOR VHF/UHF for TWR, APP, ARR and PAR Primary: Bak 12/14 in both ends of 09R/27L 09L/27R (parallel) 9816 x 75 FT 04/ x 50 FT 14/ x 75 FT Secondary: None 34D-1F in both ends of 09L/27R
Danish bases Runways: Landing aids: Communication: Arrester gear: Skrydstrup (EKSP) 11L/29R (main) 9863 x 150 FT 11R/29L (parallel) 9750 x 80 FT PAR, ILS, VORTAC VHF/UHF for TWR, APP, ARR and PAR Primary: Bak 12/14 in both ends of 11L/29R Secondary: 34D-1F (MOD) in both ends of 11R/29L 34D-1F in both ends of 11L/29R
Danish bases Runways: Landing aids: Communication: Arrester gear: Aalborg (EKYT) 08L/26R (main) 8707 x 148 FT 08R/26L (parallel) 8364 x 75 FT ILS, VORTAC, LOCATOR VHF/UHF for TWR, APP, ARR Primary: Bak 12/14 in both ends of 08L/26R 34D-1SF in both ends of 08R/26L Secondary: None
Flight Information The following publications, with relation to general flying in Denmark, are published by TACDEN: 1. Flying in Denmark: Small pamphlet giving foreign aircrews the most basic information on rules and regulations when flying in Danish airspace. 2. Military Aeronautical Information Publication Denmark (MIL AIP Denmark). Detailed information on airspace, routes, exercise areas e.t.c. 3. Royal Danish Air Force Flight Information Publication. Contains instrument departure and approach procedures for all danish military bases and 12 civilian airports. Procedures are gradually being transitioned from TERPS design criteria to PANS OPS (MIPS) criteria. In the transition period both types may be found in the FLIP. It is clearly marked in the header of each procedure whether it is a TERPS procedure or a PANS OPS/MIPS procedure. 4. Low Flying Chart 1: Denmark. Standard VFR navigation chart.
Flight Information MIL AIP Denmark, NOTAMS and Daily Navigational Warnings may be found on the internet at: