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Prepared by TACDEN Flight Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared by TACDEN Flight Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared by TACDEN Flight Information.
Flying in Denmark - a brief introduction to rules and regulations for foreign military aircrews flying in Danish airspace. Prepared by TACDEN Flight Information. Last update:

2 Copenhagen FIR Vertical limits: Ground/Sea level to infinity
Controlled airspace: North Sea FL195-FL660 3500FT-FL660

3 Copenhagen Area extends vertically from 1500/2500 FT to FL195.
If a flight, or part of a flight, takes place within or above Copenhagen Area, clearance shall be obtained from Copenhagen Approach or ACC Copenhagen respectively.

4 Airspace classification
Class A: Not applicable in Denmark Class B: Not applicable in Denmark Class C : Copenhagen Area and TMA’s within Copenhagen Area All airspace above FL195 Class D : All CTR’s and TMA’s outside Copenhagen Area Class E : Airspace between 3500 FT MSL and FL 195, except North Sea within Copenhagen FIR, and Copenhagen area Class F : Not applicable in Denmark Class G : 1. Airspace from GND/SL to 3500 FT MSL, except Copenhagen Area. 2. North Sea from SL to FL195. 3. TIZ’s and TIA’s.

5 Airspace classification
Sketch only - consult relevant aeronautical charts for exact information Filled areas indicate uncontrolled airspace

6 Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
1. For all aircraft operating at 250 KIAS or more, a flight visibility of 8 KM or more is required, except in airspace class G during daylight, when flying at or below 3000 FT MSL or 1000 FT AGL, whichever is the higher 2. Helicopters may operate VFR if flight visibility is equal to, or greater than M, if manoeuvering at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or obstructions in time to avoid collosion. 3. Flight visibility at night will be at least: 8 KM for fighters and other aircraft exceeding 140 KIAS 5 KM for aircraft operated at 140 KIAS or less 3 KM for helicopters operated at 140 KIAS or less

7 Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
Airspace class C, E, G and D (TMA) Altitude Airspace class Flight visibility Distance from cloud At or above FL 100 CDEG 8 KM 1500 M horizontally 1000 FT vertically Below FL 100 and above 3000 FT AMSL, or above 1000 FT above terrain, whichever is the higher 5 KM At and below 3000 FT AMSL, or above 1000 FT over terrain, whichever is the higher CDE G 3 KM/140 KT Clear of cloud and with the surface in sight

8 Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
Control Zones (Airspace Class D): VFR flights in Control Zones require meteorological conditions equal to or better than: Ceiling 1500 FT Visibility: 8 KM at day and night for fighter aircraft 5 KM at day and 8 KM at night for other aircraft (When ceiling is between 1500 FT and 2500 FT, separation will be established between military VFR flights and civil IFR and special VFR flights.)

9 Special VFR - may be approved by ATC in a Control Zone, provided meterological conditions are equal to or better than: Fighters and other aircraft exceeding 140 KIAS 5KM / 8KM 1000 FT 1) Clear of clouds Aircraft operating at 140 KIAS or less 3KM / 5KM 500 FT Clear of clouds Helicopters operating at 140 KIAS or less 800M / 3KM 3) 500 FT 2, 3) Clear of clouds

10 Special VFR Note 1: For fighter and other aircraft operating at 140 KIAS or more, ceiling may be reduced to 500 FT AGL in connection with take off and departure via specific routes during daylight hours. Note 2: For helicopters operating at 140 KIAS or less, ceiling may be reduced to 300 FT AGL in connection with lift off, departure and approach via specific routes during daylight hours. Note 3: In connection with NVG flying visibility may be reduced to meters and ceiling to 300 ft AGL provided that the crew is able to transition to IFR flight.

11 General Information Flying with transport- or jet aircraft, below 2000 FT AGL, is not allowed, except when specifically ordered in the Airtask or Exercise Order. Minimum altitude over towns, recreational areas etc. shall always be 2000 FT above highest obstacle within 600 metres. Transport and jet aircraft Light aircraft and helicopters, Exempted are light aircraft and helicopters which are allowed down to 500 FT above the highest obstacle within 600 metres. (1000 ft over towns, recreational areas etc.) Min 2000 FT Min 500 FT 600 metres 600 metres

12 General Information Supersonic flying (M .97+) is prohibited, unless specifically ordered, or: 1. Flying above FL100, NM off the coast, heading away from the coast line 2. Flying above FL100, 35 NM+ from the coast, no heading restrictions. Use of afterburner below 5000 ft AGL/ASL is prohibited, except: 1. Flying over the Sea, minimum 2 kilometres off the coast 2. During take-off, touch and go, overshoot 3. During emergencies 4. Attack exercises on shooting ranges or air bases (prior permission from ATC is required!)

13 Altitude restrictions
Over land: Not lower than 500 FT AGL Over towns and recreational areas: Not lower than 2000 FT AGL Over the sea more than 2 km off the coast: I.a.w. national regulations Simulated attacks: Military airfields inside perimeter fence: Not lower than 300 FT AGL Ground targets in civilian terrain: Not lower than 500 FT AGL

14 Airspeed restrictions
The following maximum airspeeds are to be observed over land, including the sea within 2 kilometres off the coast: Above 2000 FT AGL: Subsonic FT AGL: 500 KT (GS) FT AGL: 480 KT (GS) Below 500 FT AGL: 450 KT (GS)

15 Flight Plan 1. A complete ICAO flight plan must be filed for:
- flights outside Copenhagen FIR - flights landing on a civil airfield - flights departing from a civil airfield - IFR flights - night VFR flights above 3000 ft MSL 2. In all other cases, file a reduced flight plan containing: - Callsign /SSR code - Number and type of aircraft - ETD - EET - Mission and area/route - Endurance - Name of Aircraft Commander

16 IFR or Controlled VFR only
VFR flying above 3500 FT Military aircraft flying over Danish territory above 3500 ft, are to contact an Aircraft Controlling Unit (ACU) or ATS unit for flight following/flight information service. Separation to non-operational air traffic: FL460 IFR or Controlled VFR only min. 5 NM, or min. 1000FT FL195

17 Search and Rescue EH-101 or S-61SAR helicopters are based at Skrydstrup (EKSP), Aalborg (EKYT) and Roskilde (EKRK). Crews are on alert H24. Guard frequency is monitored at all military ATS-units and ACU units during their hours of operation.

18 Bird intensity Bird migration occurs during the whole year, but culminates in the periods end of March to Mid-May (spring migra-tion) and beginning of September to Mid-November (autumn migration). Due to technical reasons bird intensity cannot be obtained for København FIR. Crews should follow STANAG 3879 or national procedures for flight in bird migration periods and/or bird contration areas. Flying below 1500 FT will involve increased risk of bird strike.

19 ECM ECM guidelines/restrictions in Copenhagen FIR include:
1. Self-protection chaff may be used within the exercise area 2. Chaff longer than 50 cm. must not fall on land including the sea within 2 km off the coast. 3. Active ECM against radar installations will not be employed within 12 NM of any NATO border. 4. The use of IR-flares is not allowed over land including the sea within 2 km off the coast.

20 Miscellaneous 1. Overdue ATC will start communication search if an aircraft is overdue on ETA + 5 minutes. CALL ATC IF DELAYED, and extend flightplan 2. Radio contact Call ATC 25 NM out for clearance, prior to entering TIA’s, TIZ’s, CTR’s, TMA’s and Copenhagen Area. Maintain listening watch at all times. 3. Transition from VFR to IFR: If unable to maintain VMC in uncontrolled airspace, and unable to obtain IFR clearance prior to going IMC: Climb to and maintain 2500FT until VFR or an IFR clearance is obtained. Request IFR-clearance from Copenhagen ACC or any near-by ATC unit.

21 Emergency procedures All pilots must be familiar with standard emergency procedures for radio failure and the use of MAYDAY and PAN calls. 1. Triangular patterns can be used in Denmark. Reduced chance of being seen without IFF/SIF: A. Transmitter out, receiver OK: Right hand pattern B. Transmitter out, receiver out: Left hand pattern Squawk EMERGENCY. If possible, fly at FL250 or above at contrail altitude. Await interception. 2. VMC approach with radio U/S: Transmit blind position reports. Squawk 7600 mode 3. Approach via IP, 500 FT AGL, Light flashing, wings rocking. Fly along RWY in use on right side, pull up to downwind at far end, and look for light signals from TWR

22 Emergency procedures 3. GCA lost communication procedure:
If radio contact is lost for more than 1 minute in pattern or five seconds on final approach, climb to MSA on last given heading and contact APPROACH. If landing clearance has been received, land using other NAV AID if applicable. 4. IFF/SIF YES/NO procedure: ATC will ask specific questions which can be answered YES or NO. Squawk Ident for YES, nothing if NO.

23 Emergency procedures 5. Speechless procedure: (Use tone button or press transmitter) 1 dot ”affirmative”, ”roger”, ”wilco” 2 dots ”negative” 3 dots ”say again” 4 dots ”request homing” 1 dash ”steady” or ”field in sight” X (-..-) ”emergency” 1-9 dots means numbers one through nine 1 dash zero

24 Restricted airspace Restricted,- and Danger areas are annonunced active on a day-to-day basis by NAV WARNING SUMMARY FOR COPENHAGEN FIR AND ADJACENT WATERS.

25 Danish bases Karup (EKKA) Runways: 09R/27L (main) 9607 x 150 FT
09L/27R (parallel) x 75 FT 04/ x 50 FT 14/ x 75 FT Landing aids: PAR, ILS, TACAN, LOCATOR Communication: VHF/UHF for TWR, APP, ARR and PAR Arrester gear: Primary: Bak 12/14 in both ends of 09R/27L Secondary: None 34D-1F in both ends of 09L/27R

26 Danish bases Skrydstrup (EKSP) Runways: 11L/29R (main) 9863 x 150 FT
11R/29L (parallel) x 80 FT Landing aids: PAR, ILS , VORTAC Communication: VHF/UHF for TWR, APP, ARR and PAR Arrester gear: Primary: Bak 12/14 in both ends of 11L/29R Secondary: 34D-1F (MOD) in both ends of 11R/29L 34D-1F in both ends of 11L/29R

27 Danish bases Aalborg (EKYT) Runways: 08L/26R (main) 8707 x 148 FT
08R/26L (parallel) x 75 FT Landing aids: ILS, VORTAC, LOCATOR Communication: VHF/UHF for TWR, APP, ARR Arrester gear: Primary: Bak 12/14 in both ends of 08L/26R Secondary: None 34D-1SF in both ends of 08R/26L

28 Flight Information The following publications, with relation to general flying in Denmark, are published by TACDEN: 1. Flying in Denmark: Small pamphlet giving foreign aircrews the most basic information on rules and regulations when flying in Danish airspace. 2. Military Aeronautical Information Publication Denmark (MIL AIP Denmark). Detailed information on airspace, routes, exercise areas e.t.c. 3. Royal Danish Air Force Flight Information Publication. Contains instrument departure and approach procedures for all danish military bases and 12 civilian airports. Procedures are gradually being transitioned from TERPS design criteria to PANS OPS (MIPS) criteria. In the transition period both types may be found in the FLIP. It is clearly marked in the header of each procedure whether it is a TERPS procedure or a PANS OPS/MIPS procedure. 4. Low Flying Chart 1: Denmark. Standard VFR navigation chart.

29 Flight Information MIL AIP Denmark, NOTAMS and Daily Navigational Warnings may be found on the internet at:


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