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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Chapter 4: Threads.

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Presentation on theme: "Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Chapter 4: Threads."— Presentation transcript:

1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Chapter 4: Threads

2 4.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Chapter 4: Threads Overview Multithreading Models Thread Libraries Threading Issues Operating System Examples Windows XP Threads Linux Threads

3 4.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Objectives To introduce the notion of a thread — a fundamental unit of CPU utilization that forms the basis of multithreaded computer systems To discuss the APIs for the Pthreads, Win32, and Java thread libraries To examine issues related to multithreaded programming

4 4.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Motivation Threads run within application Multiple tasks with the application can be implemented by separate threads Update display Fetch data Spell checking Answer a network request Process creation is heavy-weight while thread creation is light-weight Can simplify code, increase efficiency Kernels are generally multithreaded

5 4.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Single and Multithreaded Processes

6 4.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Benefits Responsiveness Resource Sharing Economy Scalability

7 4.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Multicore Programming Multicore systems putting pressure on programmers, challenges include: Dividing activities Balance Data splitting Data dependency Testing and debugging

8 4.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Multithreaded Server Architecture

9 4.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Concurrent Execution on a Single-core System

10 4.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Parallel Execution on a Multicore System

11 4.11 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition User Threads Thread management done by user-level threads library Three primary thread libraries: POSIX Pthreads Win32 threads Java threads

12 4.12 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Kernel Threads Supported by the Kernel Examples Windows XP/2000 Solaris Linux Tru64 UNIX Mac OS X

13 4.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Multithreading Models Many-to-One One-to-One Many-to-Many

14 4.14 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Many-to-One Many user-level threads mapped to single kernel thread Examples: Solaris Green Threads GNU Portable Threads

15 4.15 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Many-to-One Model

16 4.16 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition One-to-One Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread Examples Windows NT/XP/2000 Linux Solaris 9 and later

17 4.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition One-to-one Model

18 4.18 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Many-to-Many Model Allows many user level threads to be mapped to many kernel threads Allows the operating system to create a sufficient number of kernel threads Solaris prior to version 9 Windows NT/2000 with the ThreadFiber package

19 4.19 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Many-to-Many Model

20 4.20 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Two-level Model Similar to M:M, except that it allows a user thread to be bound to kernel thread Examples IRIX HP-UX Tru64 UNIX Solaris 8 and earlier

21 4.21 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Two-level Model

22 4.22 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Thread Libraries Thread library provides programmer with API for creating and managing threads Two primary ways of implementing Library entirely in user space Kernel-level library supported by the OS

23 4.23 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Pthreads May be provided either as user-level or kernel-level A POSIX standard (IEEE c) API for thread creation and synchronization API specifies behavior of the thread library Common in UNIX operating systems (Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X, Tru64 UNIX) Shareware implementation are available in Public domain Main() initial /parent thread Runner() child thread Parent thread wait by calling pthread_join() Pthread_exit()

24 4.24 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Win 32Threads The technique is same as Pthreads Data shared by separate threads. Uses CreateThread() function Set of attributes passed to this function (security info,size of stack, flag)

25 4.25 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Java Threads Java threads are managed by the JVM Typically implemented using the threads model provided by underlying OS Java threads may be created by: Extending Thread class Implementing the Runnable interface Start() new thread  Allocates memory and initializes new thread in the JVM  Calls run() making the thread eligible to be run by the JVM

26 4.26 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Threading Issues Semantics of fork() and exec() system calls Thread cancellation of target thread Asynchronous or deferred Signal handling Synchronous and asynchronous

27 4.27 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Threading Issues (Cont.) Thread pools Thread-specific data Create Facility needed for data private to thread Scheduler activations

28 4.28 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Semantics of fork() and exec() Does fork() duplicate only the calling thread or all threads? UNIX have two versions. Duplicates all threads Only invoked thread duplicates Does exec() replace entire process parameter of all threads If exec() is called immediately after Fork() then duplicating all process is unnecessary Duplicating only calling thread

29 4.29 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Signal Handling Signals are used in UNIX systems to notify a process that a particular event has occurred. Synchronous  delivered to same process Asynchronous  sent to another process A signal handler is used to process signals  Signal is generated by particular event  Signal is delivered to a process  Signal is handled Options: Deliver the signal to the thread to which the signal applies Deliver the signal to every thread in the process Deliver the signal to certain threads in the process Assign a specific thread to receive all signals for the process

30 4.30 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Thread Cancellation Terminating a thread before it has finished Target Thread  that is to be canceled. Two general approaches: Asynchronous cancellation terminates the target thread immediately. Deferred cancellation allows the target thread to periodically check if it should be cancelled.

31 4.31 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Thread Pools Create a number of threads in a pool where they await work Advantages: Usually slightly faster to service a request with an existing thread than create a new thread Allows the number of threads in the application(s) to be bound to the size of the pool

32 4.32 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Thread Specific Data Allows each thread to have its own copy of data Useful when you do not have control over the thread creation process (i.e., when using a thread pool) Thread-Local-Storage TLS with local variable which are visible only during single function invocation.

33 4.33 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Scheduler Activations Both M:M and Two-level models require communication to maintain the appropriate number of kernel threads allocated to the application Scheduler activations provide upcalls - a communication mechanism from the kernel to the thread library This communication allows an application to maintain the correct number kernel threads

34 4.34 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Lightweight Processes

35 4.35 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Quiz Is it possible to have concurrency but not Parallelism? Explain? Can a multithreaded solution using user-level threads achieve better performance on a multiprocessor system than on a single processor system? Explain? Provide 1 programming examples in which multithreading does not provide better performance than single-thread solution? What is the motivation for multithreading processes in API?


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