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Kosmogonie in the Middle Ages and in Modern Physics Michael Kobel Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik Technische Universität Dresden Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Fachrichtung Physik Workshop on Transmission of Information Dresden

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Cosmology and Human Curiosity Camille Flammarion ( ), Astronomer Wrote about 50 popular books or manuscripts, starting as 16-year old with a 500 page „Cosmologie Universelle“ 1880: Yes, indeed, if humankind — from humble farmers in the fields and toiling workers in the cities to teachers, people of independent means, those who have reached the pinnacle of fame or fortune, even the most frivolous of society women — If they knew what profound inner pleasure await those who gaze at the heavens, then France, nay, the whole of Europe, would be covered with telescopes instead of bayonets, thereby promoting universal happiness and peace." Dresden, Michael Kobel2 Illustration in „L'Atmosphère. Météorologie populaire “ (Paris, 1888): „Un missionnaire du moyen âge raconte qu'il avait trouvé le point où le ciel et la terre se touchent... “

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Today‘s View of the History of the Universe Time after Big Bang today 13.8 Billion years Energy = Temperature 1 TeV 150 MeV 1 eV1 meV0,25 meV10 13 TeV Energy of CERN’s LHC Collider 3 Big Bang Stars form 1 Billion years Atoms form years 0,1MeV Forces have separated s s Inflationary Expansion Nuclei form 3 min Protons and Neutrons form s

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1.EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE 2.Higgs-Field and Higgs-Particles: why and how 3.Cosmic Microwave Radiation: The Sound of the Universe Dresden, Michael Kobel4 of 49 THREE EXAMPLES FROM COSMOLOGY

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Standard model of cosmology Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker ( ) Georges Lemaître ( ) Expansion of the universe: Few variables Size a + its chance with time Density + its change with time Pressure p natural scale parameters G,c, Hubble: Measurement of Expansion 1929 Distant objects move away faster (today‘ s plot) Dresden, Michael Kobel5 Abbé G. Lemaître ( ) Albert Einstein ( )

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Transmission of information 2-dim model of expansion (C.H.Lineweaver,T.M.Davis, Scientific American, March 2005) Dresden, Michael Kobel6

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1.expansion of the Universe 2.HIGGS-FIELD AND HIGGS- PARTICLES: WHY AND HOW 3.Cosmic Microwave Radiation: The Sound of the Universe Dresden, Michael Kobel7 of 49 THREE EXAMPLES FROM COSMOLOGY

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Symmetry and Mass Solution: Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (Nambu 1960) happening sec after Big Bang Gives mass to force carriers (W und Z) Brout&Englert, Higgs, Hagen&Guralnik&Kibble (1964) Can give mass also to all other particles Weinberg (1967), Salam(1967) (GeV)Experim.Theorie mWmW mZmZ mtmt mbmb 4.20 …0 meme …0 Symmetries of Electromagnetic and Strong Interactions require massless force carriers allow particle masses (identical in symmetry multiplet) Symmetry of Weak Interaction Requires massless force carriers Requires in addition most other particles massless Dresden, of 49Michael Kobel

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Popular analogy: A party (David Miller, UCL) Dresden, Michael Kobel 9 of 49 More:

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International Masterclasses (centrally organized in Dresden for IPPOG) Public Measurement of Higgs particles with real CERN Data CERN Masterclasses : New in

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1.Expansion of the Universe 2.Higgs-Field and Higgs-Particles: why and how 3.COSMIC MICROWAVE RADIATION: THE SOUND OF THE UNIVERSE Dresden, Michael Kobel11 of 49 THREE EXAMPLES FROM COSMOLOGY

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The Cosmic Microwave background Dresden, Michael Kobel12 of 49

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Acustic Analogy: overtones of instruments

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Analysis of Overtones Scientific Planck Satellite results, March Tools for the Public to reproduce this sound by changing the composition of the universe and more educational resources Dresden, Michael Kobel14

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Transmission of Information Levels of information 1.Scientific publication level Equations, images, diagrams, all mostly for specialists 2.Undergraduate level Fully quantitative, equations for simplified situations 3.„Scientific American“ level Semi-quantitative, Simple Diagrams, Scientific analogies 4.Public level Not quantitative, (too?) simple analogies, few/no diagrams 5.Unscientific level Esoteric, biased, often hostile to science How to avoid the danger of Information loss Adjust to the target audience Use images which emphasise most relevant information Chose analogies from everyday life; don‘ t hide their limitations Let audience become active themselves: Confucius (551 BC - 479): "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Dresden, Michael Kobel15

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