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MO SW-PBS Classroom Module This module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic.

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Presentation on theme: "MO SW-PBS Classroom Module This module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic."— Presentation transcript:

1 MO SW-PBS Classroom Module This module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic. Notes have been written to assist with the presentation. More information is available in the Classroom chapter of the MO SW-PBS Team Workbook about the topic. Slides 2 – 14 are an introduction and may be deleted if you have presented in previous mini-modules. Call your Regional Consultant if you have questions. Good luck! Delete this slide before beginning your session.

2 Handouts There are 3 handouts needed for this Classroom Module – Opportunities to Respond Guided Notes – Review of Opportunities to Respond – Opportunities to Respond Fact Sheet

3 Effective Classroom Practices

4 Outcomes At the end of the session, you will be able to… Explain to others the power of positive and proactive strategies in establishing an effective classroom learning environment. Incorporate high response opportunities into your classroom teaching. MO SW-PBS

5 “When teachers know and use positive and preventative management strategies, many of the commonly reported minor classroom behaviors can be avoided.” Scheuermann & Hall “Effective classroom management is a key component of effective instruction, regardless of grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum.” Sprick, et. al MO SW-PBS

6 Typical School Day 17%Direct Instruction 33%Seatwork 20%Transitions 30%Discipline & Other Non-Instructional Activities MO SW-PBS Cotton, 1995; Walberg,

7 Academic Learning Time There is no doubt that academic learning time–the amount of time that students are actively, successfully, and productively engaged in learning–is a strong determinant of achievement. MO SW-PBS

8 Academic Learning Time Instructional Time–the amount of the allocated time that actually results in teaching. Engaged Time–the amount of instructional time where students are actively engaged in learning. MO SW-PBS

9 Academic Learning Time Instructional Time–diminished by unclear procedures, disruptive student behavior, disciplinary responses, lengthy transitions, etc. – Classroom Expectations – Classroom Procedures & Routines – Encouraging Expected Behavior – Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior MO SW-PBS

10 Academic Learning Time Engaged Time–diminished by inactive supervision, limited opportunities for students to respond, poor task selection, etc. – Active Supervision – Opportunities to Respond – Activity Sequencing & Choice – Task Difficulty MO SW-PBS

11 Three Levels of Implementation A Continuum of Support for All Tier One All students Preventive, proactiv e Tier One All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier Two Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Tier Three Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems MO SW-PBS 15

12 Effective Classroom Practices 1.Classroom Expectations 2.Classroom Procedures & Routines 3.Encouraging Expected Behavior 4.Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior 5.Active Supervision 6.Opportunities to Respond 7.Activity Sequencing & Choice 8.Task Difficulty MO SW-PBS 324

13 Discussion: Academic Learning Time Discuss with a partner: What do we currently do to ensure uninterrupted learning time? What do we currently do to ensure engaged time (e.g., practices to ensure that students are on task, responding frequently, and producing quality work matched to their ability)? MO SW-PBS 325

14 Effective classroom managers are known, not by what they do when misbehavior occurs, but by what they do to set their classroom up for academic success and prevent problems from occurring. MO SW-PBS 324

15 References Cotton, K. (1995) Effective schools research summary: 1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Scheuermann, B. K. and Hall, J. A. (2008). Positive behavioral supports for the classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing. Walberg, H. (1988). Synthesis of research on time and learning. Educational Leadership 45(6),

16 Opportunities to Respond MO SW-PBS

17 Effective Classroom Practices 1.Classroom Expectations 2.Classroom Procedures & Routines 3. Encouraging Expected Behavior 4.Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior 5.Active Supervision 6.Opportunities to Respond 7.Activity Sequencing & Choice 8.Task Difficulty

18 Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teach called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked to the class to raise their hand if they agreed with the answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumb down if anyone disagreed. Colvin, 2009 MO SW-PBS 336

19 Opportunities to Respond (OTR) Addresses the number of times the teacher provides academic requests that require students to actively respond. Teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (verbal, written, gesture). Includes strategies for presenting materials, asking questions, and correcting students’ answers to increase the likelihood of an active response. MO SW-PBS

20 The Value of Providing OTR More time students are involved, more learned. Increased rates of responding and subsequent improved learning tend to increase the amount that can be covered. On-task behavior and correct response increase while disruptions decrease. Shown to improve reading and math performance. Provides continual feedback for the teach on student learning and the effectiveness of teaching strategies. MO SW-PBS

21 Guidelines for Response Rates Teacher talk should be no more than 40-50% of instructional time. New material–a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy. Review of previously learned material–8-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy. MO SW-PBS

22 Think about the amount of opportunities to respond you gave your students during the most recent day you taught. How would you compare to these response guideline? – New material–a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy. – Review of previously learned material–8-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy Activity: Personal Reflection

23 Response Strategies Varied and creative strategies exist. Verbal strategies–students respond orally to teacher prompts or questions. Non-verbal strategies–student use a signal, card, writing or movement to respond. MO SW-PBS 337

24 Verbal Response Strategies Individual Questioning–calling on students unpredictably heightens student attention. – Ask the question first, then pause before calling on the student to respond. – Use seating chart, tallying to monitor rate of questions presented to each. – Student names on strips of paper, drawn as questions asked. – Use above random strategy, and call on a student to repeat or summarize what the student just said. MO SW-PBS

25 Verbal Responses– Continued Choral Responding–all students in class respond in unison to a teacher question. – Suitable for review, to teach new skills, as a drill, or as a lesson summary. MO SW-PBS

26 Ms. Finch’s first graders have just finished reading a story about a young boy named Howard. Ms. Finch puts her storybook on her lap and holds up her hand and says, “Class, get ready to tell me the main character in today’s story.” She says, “Think big,” drops her hand as a signal, and the students chime in, “Howard!” “Howard is right,” exclaims Ms. Finch. “Way to go!” She asks ten more quick questions–some about the setting and main idea. “Last one. Here we go. The problem Howard faced today was finding his lost dog. Is that true or false? Think about it.” She signals and the student eagerly respond, “False!” The students laugh and so does Ms. Finch. “I couldn’t trick you, could I?” she asks. “Tell me why that’s false.” She calls on James who is frantically waving his hand to answer. Wood and Heward, 2004 MO SW-PBS

27 Using Choral Responding 1.Develop questions with only one right answer that can be answered with short, 1-3 word answers. 2.Provide a thinking pause or wait time of at least three seconds between asking the question and prompting students to respond. 3.Use a clear signal or predictable phrase to cue students to respond in unison. 4.Use a brisk, lively pace. 5.Provide immediate feedback on the group response. MO SW-PBS 338

28 Using Choral Responding– Continued Prepare questions in advance. Can be visually presented on PowerPoint® Best used with individual questions interspersed to assess individual learning. Use thorough pre-correction regarding listening, the response signal, appropriate voice tone, etc. MO SW-PBS 338

29 Verbal Responses– Continued Wait Time or Think Time–the time lapse when delivering a question before calling on a student or cueing a group response. – Engages students in thinking. – Increases participation. – Increases quality of responses. – Results in fewer redirects of students and fewer discipline problems. Rowe, 1987 MO SW-PBS

30 Using Wait Time or Think Time Simply pause after asking a question for five seconds. – Count inaudibly, use a stopwatch or follow second hand on a clock. – Peer coaching or video-taping can help to develop awareness. MO SW-PBS

31 Think about the how long your typical wait time is. Do you pause a full 5 seconds to give students time to think? Discuss with your shoulder partner how you might increase your wait time. Activity: Shoulder Partner

32 Non-Verbal Responding Every student actively answering or responding to each question or problem posed by the teacher. Same benefits as verbal response strategies. Most common approaches: white boards, written response cards, “clickers,” signaling or movement responses. MO SW-PBS 339

33 Non-Verbal Strategies White Boards–students have personal white board to write answers to teacher’s questions with an erasable pen. – Letters, words, numbers, draw symbols, or solve problems. – When cued, hold up board to display answers. – Students use an eraser, sponge, or cloth to erase their answer and await next question. MO SW-PBS

34 Non-Verbal Strategies– Continued Response Cards–pre- printed cards that have choice words on each side. – Yes/No, True/False, Odd/Even – Set of few choices (e.g., noun, pronoun, verb, adverb) MO SW-PBS

35 Using White Boards or Response Cards Teachers should: Teach the expected behaviors, including when to select their card or write their response, when to share, and when to clean boards or reposition cards for next question. Prepare questions to carefully match your response option. Assess student responses and provide clear, specific feedback. Provide the correct answer and a brief explanation if a significant number of students did not respond accurately, then re-present the question. MO SW-PBS

36 Non-Verbal Strategies– Continued Student Response Systems– commonly called “clickers.” 1.During class discussion, the teacher displays or asks a question. 2.All students key in their answer using a hand-held keypad or other web-based device. 3.Responses are received and displayed on the teacher’s computer monitor and on an overhead projector screen. MO SW-PBS

37 Using “Clickers” Teachers see immediately how students answer. Helps to guide teacher instruction. Devices are numbered so that individual responses can be downloaded for recordkeeping or further analysis once the session has ended. Student engagement and motivation or student satisfaction seems to be enhanced. All can respond anonymously using a familiar game approach. Raiser & Dempsey, 2007 MO SW-PBS 340

38 Non-Verbal Strategies– Continued Signaling or Movement Activities – Thumbs up/thumbs down, stand up/sit down, move to four corners, etc. MO SW-PBS

39 Non-Verbal Strategies– Continued Guided Notes–teacher prepared handouts leading students through a presentation or lecture with visual cues or prepared blank spaces to fill in key facts or concepts. – Increases attention and engagement. – Provides a standard set of notes. – Helps with outlining skills. – Lessons must follow the guided notes. MO SW-PBS

40 Developing Guided Notes Identify key facts, concepts, or relationships that could be left blank for students to fill in. Consider inserting concept maps or a chart, diagram, or graph to help with understanding. Provide students with formatting clues such as blank lines, numbers, bullets, etc. Be careful not to require too much writing. MO SW-PBS

41 Other Practices to Increase OTR Computer-assisted instruction Class-wide peer tutoring Direct Instruction MO SW-PBS

42 Activity: Opportunities to Respond Work with a partner. Review the practices for ensuring numerous opportunities to respond. Summarize what you have learned in the chart on handout Review of Opportunities to Respond by listing the strategies and then noting any key points about using the strategies effectively. Be prepared to share your summary with the large group. 341

43 MO SW-PBS Activity: Opportunities to Respond Use handout entitled Personal Reflection and Commitment. List the subjects or content areas that you teach in the left column below. Identify the verbal and non-verbal opportunity to respond strategies that could be used to improve your student learning outcomes in those subjects or content in the right column. Put a star by the one you will make a commitment to develop first. Share with a partner. 342

44 MO SW-PBS Questions

45 References Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3, Carnine, D. W. (1976). Effects of two teacher-presentation rates on off-task behavior, answering correctly, and participation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, Heward, W. L. (1994). Three low-tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response during group instruction. In R. Garner, III, D. M. Sainato, J. O., Cooper, T. E., Heron W. L., Heward, J., Eshleman, & T.A. Grossi (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. MacSuga, A. S., & Simonsen, B. (2011). Increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based classroom management strategies through consultation: Overview and case studies. Beyond Behavior, 20(11), Miller, S.P. (2009). Validated practices for teaching students with diverse needs and abilities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2 nd Ed., pp ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Rowe, M. (1987) Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up. American Educator, 11, Scott, T. M. Anderson, C. M., & Alter, P. (2012). Managing classroom behavior using positive behavior supports. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Simonsen, B., Myers, D., & DeLuca, C. (2010). Providing teachers with training and performance feedback to increase use of three classroom management skills: Prompts, opportunities to respond, and reinforcement. Teacher Education in Special Education, 33, MO SW-PBS

46 References Continued Skinner, C.H., Belfior, P.J., Mace, H.W., Williams-Wilson, S., & Johns, G.A. (1997). Altering response topography to increase response efficiency and learning rates. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, Skinner, C. H., Smith, E. S., & McLean, J. E. (1994). The effects on intertribal interval duration on sight-word learning rates of children with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 19, Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing. Sutherland, K. S., Adler, N., & Gunter P. L. (2003). The effect of varying rates of opportunities to respond on academic request on the classroom behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (11), Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of student with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special Education, (22), West, R. P., & Sloane, H. N. (1986). Teacher presentation rate and point delivery rate: Effect on classroom disruption, performance, accuracy, and response rate. Behavior Modification, 10, MO SW-PBS

47 For More Information Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support website ective-class-practice ective-class-practice

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