Chapter 23 Nation Building & Economic Transformations in the Americas, 1800-1900
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 A.Roots of Revolution, to 1810 1.Enlightenment Ideals Heavily influenced by revolutions in U.S. & France -Declaration of Independence -Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 2. Napoleonic Conquest Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807, Spain in 1808 Created crisis in colonies -Spanish King Ferdinand VII abdicated his thrown -Portuguese King John VI fled to Brazil
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 B. Spanish South America 1.Dispute over authority Colonies question authority of colonial officials Popular movements overthrew Spanish officials in 1808-1809 -Venezuela, Mexico, & Alto Peru (Bolivia) Spanish leaders reasserted control, punished leaders in 1810
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 2. Independence Creoles in Caracas (Venezuela) declared independence in 1811 Espoused popular sovereignty & representative democracy Aim to gain political power at expense of Spanish Led by Simon Bolivar -Son of wealthy planters
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 2.Bolivar Bolivar led an army that fought for independence Allied with slaves and free blacks -Bolivar agreed to support emancipation -Received support from Haiti Liberated modern Venezuela, Columbia Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (named for Bolivar)
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 3.Attempt at Unity Bolívar defeated the Spanish armies in 1824 Tried to forge Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador into a single nation. -Gran Columbia Attempted to create a confederation of the former Spanish colonies. Both failed by 1830
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 4.Buenos Aires local junta leaders declared independence as the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata. -modern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia The new government was weak, and the region quickly descended into political chaos.
Warm Up: Compare the leadership of the American Revolution to that of the revolutions in Spanish South America.
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 C. Mexico, 1810 - 1823 1.Disparity of Wealth In 1810, Mexico was Spain’s richest and most populous colony Spanish immigrants dominated government, church & economy the Amerindian population of central Mexico was very poor
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 2.Revolution On September 16, 1810, a priest, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, urged uprising against the Spain. -resulting in violent revolution -Targeting ranch & mine owners (peninsulars & creoles) after Hidalgo’s capture and execution, José María Morelos, also a priest, became leader. -Declared independence -Drafted a constitution Loyalist forces defeated the insurrection and executed Morelos in 1815. Jose Maria Morelos Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 3.Independence In 1821, military revolt in Spain Colonel Agustín de Iturbide allied loyalist and insurgents declared Mexico’s independence -with himself as emperor. In early 1823, the army overthrew Iturbide Mexico became a republic. -Iturbide executed in 1824
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 D. Brazil, to 1831 1.End of Portuguese Rule King John VI of Portugal ruled his kingdom from Brazil until 1821 unrest in Spain and Portugal led him to return to Lisbon. King John’s son Pedro remained in Brazil, -ruled as regent until 1822 Pedro declared Brazil to be an independent constitutional monarchy, with himself as king.
I. Independence in Latin America 1800-1830 2. Constitutional Monarchy King Pedro’s enacted liberal policies -including opposition to slavery alienated the political slave-holding elite incurred heavy losses of men and money as he attempted to control Uruguay by military force. Street demonstrations and violence led Pedro I to abdicate in favor of his son, Pedro II reigned until republicans overthrew him in 1889.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 A.Constitutional Experiments 1.Constitutionalism Leaders in both the United States and in Latin America espoused constitutionalism. 2.United States the colonists’ prior experience with representative government contributed to the success of constitutionalism 3. Latin America inexperience with popular politics contributed to the failure of constitutions. -conflict between church and state -military & civilian government
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 4.Canada Britain responded to demands for political reform Established limited self-rule in each of the provinces in the 1840s. In 1867, the provincial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia entered into a confederation -Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa.
Dominion of Canada, 1873 Although independence was not yet achieved and settlement remained concentrated along the U.S. border, Canada had established effective political and economic control over its western territories by 1873.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 B.Personalist Leaders 1.Military Leaders of Civilian Government Successful military leaders in both the United States and Latin America were able to use their military reputations to gain political power. Able to mobilize the masses United States -George Washington South America -Simon Bolivar Mexico -Agustín de Iturbide Latin America’s slow development of stable political institutions made personalist politics more influential than it was in the United States.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 2.Populism The constitutions excluded large numbers of poor citizens from full political participation. led to the rise of populist leaders -spoke to the desires of the excluded poor
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 3. Páez & Jackson Both dominated national politics by identifying with the common people -in practice, they promoted the interests of powerful property owners. in Latin America personalist leaders often became dictators -weaker constitutional tradition, less protection of property rights, lower literacy levels, and less developed communications sytems
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 Paez uneducated and poor man became one of Bolivar’s leading generals declared Venezuela’s independence from Bolívar’s Gran Colombia in 1829 -ruled as president or dictator for the next eighteen years. Jackson born in humble circumstances, successful general who became president -increased the powers of the presidency at the expense of the Congress and the Supreme Court.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 C.The Threat of Regionalism 1.Fragmentation in Latin America After independence, the weak central governments of the new nations were often unable to prevent regional elites from leading secessionist movements. In Spanish America, all of the postindependence efforts to create large multistate federations failed. Central America split off from Mexico in 1823 -broke up into five separate nations; Gran Colombia broke up into: -Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia declared their independence from Argentina.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 2. U.S. Expansion The Louisiana Purchase & Mexican-American War greatly increased the size of the U.S. Question of slavery in new territories increased regional tensions
Territorial Growth of the United States, 1783-1853 Territorial Growth of the United States, 1783–1853 The rapid western expansion of the United States resulted from aggressive diplomacy and warfare against Mexico and Amerindian peoples. Railroad development helped integrate the trans-Mississippi west and promote economic expansion.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 3. The United States & Slavery Slavery divided the nation leading to the establishment of the Confederacy and the U.S. Civil War. -600,000 deaths -Abolition of slavery in the U.S.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 D. Foreign Interventions and Regional Wars 1.Causes Of Conflict national borders, access to natural resources, and control of markets.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 2.Conflict with Europe War of 1812 Spanish – American War (1898–1899) -U.S. gained Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippines -Cuban independence French invasions of Mexico -the French invaded Mexico in 1862, ousted President Benito Juárez -established Maximilian Habsburg as emperor. -Juárez drove the French out in 1867
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 3.Conflicts between American Nations Mexican - American War -U.S. gained Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado in 1848. Chile defeated the combined forces of Peru and Bolivia in two wars (1836–1839 &1879–1881) -Chile gained nitrate mines -forced Bolivia to give up its only outlet to the sea. Argentina and Brazil fought over control of Uruguay in the 1820s -finally recognized Uruguayan independence. Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay cooperated in a five-year war against Paraguay -Paraguay was defeated, occupied, lost territory, and was forced to open its markets to foreign trade.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 E.Native Peoples and the Nation-State 1.End of Colonial Protection Independence ended colonial protection of native peoples lands Independent Amerindian peoples posed a challenge to the new nations of the Western Hemisphere Amerindian military resistance was overcome in both North and South America by the end of the 1880s.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 2.United States expansion of white settlements between 1790 -1810 led to conflict between the American government and Amerindians Indian Removal Act of 1830 -forced the resettlement of eastern Amerindian peoples to land west of the Mississippi River.
Read: Indian Removal Documents Answer questions on a separate sheet of paper
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 Amerindians living on the Great Plains had become skilled users of horses and firearms -resisted to the expansion of white settlement. Horses and firearms had made the Plains peoples less reliant on agriculture more reliant on buffalo hunting. Decline of Pains Indians Overhunting of the buffalo, loss of land to ranchers, armed conflict with the U.S. Army forced the Plains Amerindians to give up their land -Forced to move to reservations
Indian Cession of Lands to the United States Forced removal of the Creek, Cherokee, and Chickasaw Indians led to the death of thousands on the Trail of Tears to reservations in Oklahoma, as well as to the destruction of their cultures.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 3. Argentina & Chile Native people were able to check the expansion of white settlement until the 1860s population increase, political stability, and military modernization gave the Chilean and Argentinean governments the upper hand. In the 1870s both Argentina and Chile crushed native resistance -drove surviving Amerindians onto marginal land.
II.The Problem of Order, 1825–1890 5.Mexico plantation owners in the Yucatán Peninsula forced Maya communities off their land -lived in poverty. Maya communities in the Yucatán rose in a revolt the Caste War (1847) -nearly returned the Yucatán to Maya rule.
Warm Up: What led to the downfall of Native American civilation in the United States?
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change A.The Abolition of Slavery 1.Ideals vs. Reality Enlightenment ideals of freedom and citizenship contrasted with the reality of slavery. Slavery survived in much of the Western Hemisphere until the 1850s
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 2.Slavery in the United States In the early19th century, slavery was weakened: -abolition in some of the northern states -by the termination of the African slave trade to the United States (1808)
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 3.United States Abolitionist Made moral and religious arguments against slavery. women and free African Americans, played important roles in the abolition movement. -neither had full Constitutional Rights The Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery in the rebel states not occupied by the Union army final abolition was accomplished with the passage of the 13 th Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 4.Brazil progress toward the abolition of slavery was slower Slaves joined army in exchange for freedom during war with Paraguay (1865-1870) -Served with distinction -Increased support for abolition Slavery abolished in 1888.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 5.the Caribbean colonies little support for abolition among whites or among free blacks. abolition in British Caribbean colonies was the result the declining profitability of the sugar plantations abolition in the French colonies followed the overthrow of the government of Louis Philippe. Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico in 1873 and in Cuba in 1886.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change B.Immigration 1.Need for labor As the slave trade ended, immigration from Europe and Asia increased. During the 19 th century, Europe provided the majority of immigrants to the Western Hemisphere Asian immigration increased after 1850.
Immigrants to Argentina await processing Argentina was one of the most important destinations for European immigrants in the nineteenth century. In this photo, thousands of recent arrivals are packed into an assembly hall to await processing. (Library of Congress) Immigrants to Argentina await processing
Chinese in Vancouver Vancouver was an important Western Hemisphere destination for Chinese immigrants in the nineteenth century. This photo shows how an important element of traditional Chinese culture-- the elaborate Chinese funeral--thrived among the storefronts and streetcar lines of the late- Victorian Canadian city. (Special Collections, Vancouver Public Library) Chinese in Vancouver
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 2.Discrimination Immigration brought economic benefits Asian immigrants faced discrimination and violence in the United States, Canada, Peru, Mexico, and Cuba immigrants from European countries also faced prejudice and discrimination. 3.Assimilation Desire for immigrants to adopt culture Schools were used to teach language, cultural values, and patriotism.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change C. American Cultures 1.Impact of Immigration Customs of immigrant communities changed -Acculturation Influence of immigrants -Language, food, dance, music, sports, fashion, political ideas
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change D.Women’s Rights and the Struggle for Social Justice 1.Women’s Rights Movement Women’s Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, NY 1848 -Called for equal rights for women Slow progress: -Demanded economic, legal, political, and educational equality in the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Most working-class women played no role in the women’s rights movements -took jobs outside the home, contributing to the transformation of gender relations.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 2.Civil Rights discrimination against persons of African descent existed throughout the Western Hemisphere Demand for equal political & economic rights
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change E.Development and Underdevelopment 1.Growth Nearly all the nations of the Western Hemisphere experienced economic growth during the 19 th century the United States was the only one to industrialize Only the United States, Canada, and Argentina attained living standards similar to those in Western Europe.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 2.Foreign Investment Rising demand for mine products led to mining booms in the western United States, Mexico, and Chile. European & North American corporations played a significant role in developing mining enterprises in Latin America. The expense of transportation and communications technology also increased dependence on foreign capital.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 3.Interdependence Latin America, the United States, and Canada all participated in the increasingly integrated world market Those nations that industrialized achieved prosperity and development, those nations that depended on the export of raw materials and low-wage industries experienced underdevelopment.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change 4.Success vs. Failure Based on cyclical swings in international markets The United States and Canada gained independence during periods of global economic expansion. Latin American countries gained independence when the global economy was contracting. Weak governments, political instability, and (in some cases) civil war slowed Latin American development. Latin America became dependent on Britain and, later, on the U.S. for technology and capital.
III.The Challenge of Social and Economic Change F.Altered Environments 1.Effects of Growth Deforestation, soil exhaustion, and erosion. Rapid urbanization put strain on water delivery systems, sewage and garbage disposal systems The expansion of the mining industry led to erosion and pollution Increased demand led to environmental degradation but also contributed to economic growth. Given a choice between protecting the environment or achieving economic growth, nations chose economic growth.
The United States, 1850-1920 This map shows the expansion of the United States from the coasts into the interior of the continent. In the western half of the continent, only California and Texas were states in 1850; territories located further from the coasts became states later. The economic development, shown by the railroad lines, followed much the same pattern, radiating west and south from the northeastern states and--to a lesser extent--eastward from California.
IV.Comparative Perspectives A.Constitutional Challenges All new nations in the Western Hemisphere evolved from their colonial political traditions. All but the United States suffered failed constitutions within a generation and were divided by distinct regions and ideologies. B.Challenges of Expansion The new nations faced foreign intervention and/or regional competition over territory. Amerindians lost out to white encroachment throughout the hemisphere. C.Social and Economic Changes The end of slavery in the United States and Brazil followed long campaigns and protests to the point of Civil War. -The poorest regions of the United States and Brazil were those that had relied upon slave labor. Amerindian populations were forced to marginal lands and remained at the bottom economically. Immigrants to the Western Hemisphere tended to settle in regions that had not included slavery. -Many came as indentured servants and some, such as the Chinese and East Indians, suffered racial discrimination. Nations in the more temperate regions tended to prosper the most. Although economic growth throughout the hemisphere depended upon agricultural exports, the United States had become a major industrial nation by 1890.