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1 Migration in Spain Understanding a Contradictory System Perspectives of different actors Amanda Bailey, Sophie Reimertz, Eva Günzel, Christoph Winkler.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Migration in Spain Understanding a Contradictory System Perspectives of different actors Amanda Bailey, Sophie Reimertz, Eva Günzel, Christoph Winkler."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Migration in Spain Understanding a Contradictory System Perspectives of different actors Amanda Bailey, Sophie Reimertz, Eva Günzel, Christoph Winkler Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen

2 2 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen Table of Content 1.Introduction: Migration Regime in Spain 1.1 Ceuta and Melilla- Crisis 2. Research Question 2.1 Perspectives of different actors 3. State of Art 4. Data 5. Research Results 6. Conclusion 7. References

3 3 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Spain Facts | Bochum | Summer Semester Introduction – Spain Facts Area: km² 17 autonomous communities, 2 autonomous cities (Ceuta and Melilla) Population: (2013) Foreign Population: (9,1 %) Unemployment rate: 25,6 % (2013) < 25 years of age: 54,4 % (2013) EU entry in 1986; Member of the Schengen area since 1991 Governing party: Partido popular (christian-conservative, economic- liberalistic) Prime minister: Mariano Rajoy Brey (since 11/2011)

4 4 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 1. Introduction – Migration History Spain traditionally rather a country of emigration  : 1.5 million Spaniards emigrated to South American countries  : 2 million Spaniards migrated to more prosperous European countries  : 1,5 million emigrants returned to Spain for retirement Change into a country of immigration  1975: approximately resident foreigners in Spain  1999: foreign population reached 1 million  2013: resident foreigners Asylum applications claimed in 2013  applications (increase of 74% related to 2012)  asylum decisions; 535 positive; rejected (77%)  Top-countries of origin: Mali, Syria, Algeria, Nigeria, Somalia MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Migration History | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

5 5 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Migration Policy | Bochum | Summer Semester Introduction – Migration Policy Migration policy exclusively handled at the central state level  cooperation between: Ministry of Employment and Social Security Ministry of the Interior Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Ministry of Justice  coordination through: Deputy General Directorate for Legal Affairs Secretariat for Immigration and Emigration generally Spain shows up a liberal attitude towards migrants and refugees  due to own migration experiences  no anti-migration right wing parties nevertheless low rates of asylum applications and asylum recognition

6 6 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Law and Asylum procedures | Bochum | Summer Semester Introduction – Law and Asylum procedures rights of asylum seekers and migrants defined by the Spanish constitution 2 basic laws: Organic Law 2/2009 (Immigration Law) Law 12/2009 (Asylum Law)  reformed for compatibility with EU-legislation  complemented by Regulations and Royal Decrees  lacking regulations for Asylum law complicate interpretation all asylum applications are exclusively treated by the asylum and refugee office (OAR)  assistance of a joint-interministerial commission  participation of UNHCR-Delegates (right on information, provide own opinion) application process can last 6 month up to 2-3 years or even more  if application is accepted the autonomous communities of Spain are responsible for the assistance of integration

7 7 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Law and Asylum procedures | Bochum | Summer Semester Introduction – Law and Asylum procedures

8 8 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis Facts about Ceuta and Melilla - Spanish exclaves of Ceuta & Melilla: in a political sense part of Europe, geographically part of Africa. They are not part of Schengen. - Ceuta is only about 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) off the southern tip of Spanish mainland. - At Borders: 30,000 People await opportunity to enter EU. Migrants regularly attempt to scale fences separating Ceuta & Melilla from Morocco. => High-tech-fence: Three rows of six-meter-high (about 20 feet) barbed-wire fencing “protect” these Spanish frontline cities. Infrared cameras monitor the fortifications and motion and noise detectors have been installed. (Cost: € 30 million) - Together with Airport Barajas, Ceuta & Melilla are principle points of entry to Spain

9 9 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 1.1 Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis -In 2013, over 4,300 people entered the two enclaves irregularly -In Nov. 2013, Spain reinstalled barbed wire on the fence surrounding Melilla. (Had been removed in 2007, though it has been atop Ceuta fences since 2005.) -> On March 18, 2014, some 500 migrants managed to climb over the fences at Melilla in the largest successful attempt in recent years. -In reaction to recent events, Spanish government is planing to lawfully enable police officers to push back arriving groups and to further advance the fence technology. [ELPAÌS, March 2014] MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

10 10 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 1.1 Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis Due to repeated violence towards expelled asylum seekers by Moroccan border guards, Human Rights Watch warns Spain: all forcible returns of sub-Saharan migrants to Morocco should be halted until Morocco can guarantee their humane treatment. ”Large scale attempts to climb over the fences at Ceuta and Melilla pose genuine security concerns, and Spain has a right to secure its borders. But these challenges do not absolve Spain of its duty to respect human rights, including the right to seek asylum and to protect migrants against inhuman treatment.“ Judith Sunderland, senior Western Europe researcher, welche Institution?#hier quelle MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

11 11 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 1.1 Ceuta and Melilla – Asylum Crisis Life in Ceuta & Melilla: C.E.T.I.: Immigrants are held in the “Centro de Estancia Temporal de Inmigrantes”, the temporary holding center for immigrants. Living Conditions C.E.T.I.'s: covers basic needs for arriving until situation clarified -3 meals a day, medical treatment, psychological support & Spanish lessons. -rooms are shared and contain beds for 10 -The C.E.T.I. is an open access space – nobody is forced to stay. -Impossible to find work in Ceuta or Melilla due to economic crisis -C.E.T.I. was designed to accommodate around 500 people for a temporary stay. In reality rooms are crowded & some immigrants stay years. #Aus red cross interv.: Zahlen zur Überbelegung, evtl. auch woanders: wieviele tatsächl dort MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1.1 Introduction – Ceuta & Melilla | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

12 12 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 2. Research Question | Bochum | Summer Semester Research Question In a European comparison, many aspects of the Spanish asylum system seem to be exemplary, but on the other hand, the situation in Ceuta and Melilla is more than critical: How can we explain the contradiction between image of Spanish asylum policy and the reality of the Ceuta and Melilla crisis? Possible hypothesis/answers: 1.Spanish asylum policy is just „window dressing“ (talk), meanwhile reality of treating with asylum and refugee issues (action) always was different and still contrasts. 2.There is a mutual blockade of different collective actors at the local, regional, national and European level of whom some try to make the Ceuta/Melilla defense system more effective and others intend to make it coincident.

13 Perspectives of different actors Who are the different actors in the Spanish Asylum System? - governement [Ministries] - Police - governement-related Organizations - Grass-Root-Organizations (NGOs) - Religious Organizations →Assumption: Every organization acts upon its own logic and is related/refers to different levels of action and legitimation: local, regional, national and European MAREM-project | SPAIN | 2.1 Perspectives of different actors| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

14 14 Common European Asylum System Spanish Asylum Law Grass Root NGOss Guardia Civil, Policía Nacional FRONTEX UNHCR, Cruz Roja 2.2 Perspectives of different actors MAREM-project | SPAIN | 2.1 Perspectives of different actors| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

15 15 3. State of the Art Algeciras Acoge: Monográfico especial. Frontera sur europea: El mayor desnivel económico del mundo. Histórica publicación de Algeciras Acoge en la que se recoge la situación de la frontera sur en los años Una realidad y análisis, que años después sigue -por desgracia- absolutamente vigente. https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BzEEXM-xHBCIeklpN2lvV0hUNWs/edit CEAR: La situación de las personas refugiadas en España Informe [http://www.cear.es/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Resumen-Ejecutivo-Informe-2014-de- CEAR.pdf] Migreurop: En las fronteras de Europa. -Controles, confinamientos, expulsiones. Informe https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BzEEXM-xHBCIY0lvaXRqRm5UTHVRRG5XY2JKQ0lTUQ/ edit?pli=1 MAREM-project | SPAIN | 3. State of the Art | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

16 16 3. State of the Art APDHA' Annual Publicationes: Derechos Humanos en la Frontera Sur : -Balance Migratorio 2012 (Rafael Lara, P. 6-26) -El escándalo del paquete „asilo“ (Catherine Teule, P ) -Mellilla, paradigma de unas inhumanas políticas migratorias (Patricia Simon, P ) -Seis anios despues de los acontecimimientos de Ceuta y Melilla: ?que pasa con el tratamiento de los subsaharianos y la polítca de migración en Marruecos? (Julie Turco, P ) -Unión europea: fronteras interiores y exteriores (Jacopo Corsini, P.49-65) -Ceuta y Melilla: el el limbo de los suenios (P ) MAREM-project | SPAIN | 3. State of the Art | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

17 17 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 1. Introduction – Spain Facts | Bochum | Summer Semester Data- Interviews in Spain No.OrganizationCharacteristicsNorms/ values/ Responsibilitie s Field of Legitimation Dominant Issue ACCEM Acoge Algeciras APDHA Andalucíá Acoge CEAR CEAR (Psycologist) Grass Root NGOsSupport (legal, financial/econo -mical, social) National Regional National A&R 7878 ACNUR Cruz Roja Government- related OGs Refugee relief Public welfare EU Global A&R multiple 9 10 Policía Nacional Guardia Civil Official Executive actors Protection of the order in the state National multiple 11Narrative Intrview with refugee from Cameroon

18 18 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester Research results Guardia Civil, Policía Nacional FRONTEX “Migración es un drama! Immigration is also a global issue that we all need to work on together in joint force. We all carry responsibility to this tragic topic.” (Policía Nacional in Spain) Two (contradictory) duties: a) Protecting refugees and asylum seekers and guaranteeing the right of applying for asylum b) Preventing the Spanish and therewith the European boarders of illegal mass immigration

19 19 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research results Guardia Civil, Policía Nacional FRONTEX Situation in Ceuta and Melilla: The Guardia Civil sees itself unable to cope with growing migration flows towards Ceuta and Melilla Reported illegal Push-Backs Requirement of support by other EU members (FRONTEX) MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

20 20 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research Results General Field of Work: -To offer help and assistance to asylum seekers & irregular migrants -To secure access to the asylum process for those who need it -To support government in decisions, give recommendations -To inform potential asylum candidates of their rights and chances -To work hand in hand with the government & all players involved -Awareness-Raising, Research, Publications [UNHCR & Cruz Roja:] Organizations associated with the federal government MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

21 21 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research Results Government-associated Organization Perspective, problems seen, critique: In respect to Ceuta and Melilla: „Its the most unequal border in the world. [...]“ “Although there is a primacy of protection of the coast/border, its not clear who can enter, who needs protection and on what basis this should be decided. How and where should the line be drawn? On what basis do we draw the distinctions of who needs protection? Europe has the responsibility to protect and to make asylum accessible. [...]“ “We call for more and better trainings and preparation of policemen at the borders. They should be enabled to differentiate, to act appropiatley according to a situation and to know the legal aspect of different cases...“ MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

22 22 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research Results “We are worried about whats happening in Ceuta and Melilla, it’s a cynical situation: On the one hand we speak about refugee and asylum rights, but what Europe and Spain are actually trying to do, is to restrict and retain immigration. This is against the international and European law and against our Law for Foreigners and Asylum. We have to respect human rights. We have to establish European laws which respect human rights. In the context of the economic crisis, of populism, xenophobia, and of racism; we need a European answer and democratic concept.” MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

23 23 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research Results Government-associated Organization Perspective, problems seen, critique: about NGO's in Spain: „In comparison to other countries Spain has a relatively small presence of NGOs defending the right of asylum for applicants“ -“The Majority of NGO's only functions through public and private funding. Basically, jobs and work that are steady are those of governmental institutions. NGO's work is always dependent on their instable financial situation.“ => „The governmental centers are better centers. In general. With better service and stability. People who work there have a regular and stable budget. They work with more consistency, higher stability and reliability.“ -Positive about NGOs: „Smaller, more personal, more flexible. Able to detect and care for special situations and needs better, often more continuously. (In specific cases, the NGOs are more adequate.)“ [All Quotes for this slide taken from S008] MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

24 24 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research Results “the system of fences in Ceuta and Melilla currently has the effect that only those who can climb the fences have the opportunity of entering. Mechanism have to be considered so that people can be identified and to work against this natural selection happening now.” “The topic is being discussed in the media. But nobody is tackling the issue of international protection and the necessities of the people concerned. In the case of having to return people to their country of origin, the legislation has to be followed. This has to be conform with the Spanish law for foreigners, which establishes some mechanisms/[safety] guarantees for returning people to their countries.” The politics [in Ceuta and Melilla] are worrisome. Asylum eligible people won't apply for asylum in the centers designated for this because they know they would be stuck in these cities for an undefined amount of time while the others make it to the Spanish peninsula bit by bit. Once they reach the peninsula they can go to other countries or apply for asylum in Spain. This is interesting to keep in mind because it changes the panorama [big picture] of the protection/asylum system in Spain. [Quotes from: S008] MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

25 25 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research Results Grass Root Organisations Accem, Acoge, Cear etc. Position: Help, awareness raising, Blaming/Shaming “the situation for applicants is getting worse“ Perspective: Critique of the status quo Critique of centralized asylum system in Spain Critique of Detention Policy in Spain Critique of policy Ceuta/Melilla MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

26 26 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 5. Research Results Grass Root Organisations Accem, Acoge, Cear etc. Chances: „We need more flexibility“ More flexible asylum system Better opportunities for immigrants to get stay permits Shorter time frame and simplification of asylum procedure Efficient and short collaboration btw. the European States MAREM-project | SPAIN | 5. Research results | Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

27 27 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 6. Conclusion | Bochum | Summer Semester Conclusion NGOs, Government-related OGs and executive authorities differ in their perceived responsibilities etc##hier wieder explizier auf thesen von vorn Folie 12 beziehen## within the Spanish Asylum system:  NGOs accuse executive authorities of violating human rights and shutting down the boarders  NGOs are accused of being inefficient as they have less impact on decision- making processes ______________________________________________________________________ Consensus about actual situation in Ceuta and Melilla:  Spain is unable to cope with the great rush of migrants at the Spanish enclaves  Enhanced support by other EU members is indispensable  The asylum system (in Ceuta and Melilla) does not work efficiently  Decentralization of the asylum procedure and a simplified application process is needed

28 28 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen MAREM-project | SPAIN | 7. References| Bochum | Summer Semester References Interviews S002 CEAR_Sevilla_ S003 CEAR (Psy.)_Sevilla_ S004 Acoge Andalucía Algeciras_Algeciras_ S007 Cruz Roja_Madrid_ S008 ACNUR_Madrid_ S010 Policía Nacional_Tarifa_ S011 Acoge Andalucía Sevilla_Sevilla_

29 29 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 7. References Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (2013): Cifras de Población a 1 de julio de Online: checked UNHCR (2013): Asylum Trends 2013 – Levels and Trends in industrialized countries. Online: checked Unemploymentrate Online: checked European Commission (2012): Country Factsheet: Spain Online: y_factsheet_spain_2012_en_ pdf, checked EDAL (2014): EDAL Country Overview – Spain. Online: checked Kreienbrink, A. (2010): Spanien – Vom Auswanderungs- zum Einwanderungsland. Online: checked MAREM-project | SPAIN | 7. References| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

30 30 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen 7. References Derechos humanos en la frontera sur APDHA El ministro annuncia „mallas antitrepa“ para las fronteras de Ceuta y Melilla. EL PAÍS, 6. de Marzo de 2014 Interior presenta como „cuestión de Estado“ la crisis de Ceuta y Melilla. EL PAÍS, 7. de Marzo de melilla Zeit-Artikel vom 17. Februar février du français, Jessica Edwards), Migreurop, 12 octobre 2005 Report: Spain: Accountability urged for ‘appalling’ migrant deaths in Ceuta. Amnesty International ( ) Online ceuta , checked: MAREM-project | SPAIN | 7. References| Bochum | Summer Semester 2014

31 31 Optionalbereich MAREM| Prof. Dr. Ludger Pries / Anna Gansbergen Thank you for your kind attention ! The „Spain-Group“ Amanda Bailey Eva Günzel Sophie Reimertz Christoph Winkler


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