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Program Analysis and Verification 0368-4479

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1 Program Analysis and Verification Noam Rinetzky Lecture 8: Axiomatic Semantics – Rely/Guarantee (Take II * ) Slides credit: Roman Manevich, Mooly Sagiv, Eran Yahav

2 We begin … Mobiles Scribe

3 Programming Language Syntax: … S 1 ‖ … ‖ S n | c | await b then c – In our case: c = case | x:=a Operational Semantics: – States – Commands – Traces S 1, s ⇒ S’ 1, s’ S 1 ‖ S 2, s ⇒ S’ 1 ‖ S 2, s [Par 1 ] s ∈ ∑ S 0, s 0 ⇒ S 1, s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k c0c0 c1c1 ckck

4 Programming Language Syntax: … S 1 ‖ … ‖ S n | c | await b then c – In our case: c = case | x:=a Operational Semantics: – States – Commands – Traces S 1, s ⇒ S’ 1, s’ S 1 ‖ S 2, s ⇒ S’ 1 ‖ S 2, s [Par 1 ] s ∈ ∑ S 0, s 0 ⇒ S 1, s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ … c0c0 c1c1 ckck

5 Axiomatic Semantics (Hoare Logic) Disjoint parallelism Global invariant Owicky – Gries [PhD. ‘76] { P } S 1 ‖ S 2 { Q } … …

6 Rely / Guarantee Aka Assume/Guarantee Cliff Jones [IFIP ‘83] Main idea: Modular capture of interference – Compositional proofs

7 Meaning of (atomic) Commands A relation between pre-states and post-states c ⊆ ∑ × ∑ S 0, s 0 ⇒ S 1, s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 c0c0 c1c1 ckck

8 Meaning of (atomic) Commands A relation between pre-states and post-states c ⊆ ∑ × ∑ S 0, s 0 ⇒ S 1, s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 c0c0 c1c1 ckck

9 Meaning of (atomic) Commands A relation between pre-states and post-states S 0, s 0 ⇒ s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 ⇒ s k+2 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+4 … ⇒ s n+1 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ … c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn

10 Intuition: Global Invariant Every (intermediate) state satisfies invariant I S 0, s 0 ⇒ s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 ⇒ s k+2 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+4 … ⇒ s n+1 c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ … I=I= c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn

11 Intuition: Global Invariant Thread-view S 0, s 0 ⇒ s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 ⇒ s k+2 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+4 … ⇒ s n+1 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ … I=I= c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn ⇒

12 Intuition: Rely Guarantee Thread-view S 0, s 0 ⇒ s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 ⇒ s k+2 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+4 … ⇒ s n+1 c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ … ⇒ …

13 Intuition: Rely Guarantee Thread-view S 0, s 0 ⇒ s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 ⇒ s k+2 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+4 … ⇒ s n+1 c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ … ⇒ … G G G G RRRR R

14 Intuition: Rely Guarantee Thread-view S 0, s 0 ⇒ s 1 ⇒ … ⇒ s k+1 ⇒ s k+2 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+3 ⇒ s k+4 … ⇒ s n+1 c0c0 c1c1 ckck c k+1 c k+2 c k+3 cncn ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ … ⇒ … G G G G R*R* R*R* R*R*

15 Relational Post-Conditions meaning of commands a relations between pre-states and post-states Option I: {P} C {Q} – P is a one state predicate – Q is a two-state predicate Example – {true} x := x + 1 {x= x + 1}

16 Relational Post-Conditions meaning of commands a relations between pre-states and post-states Option II: {P} C {Q} – P is a one state predicate – P is a one-state predicate Use logical variables to record pre-state Example – {x = X} x := x + 1 {x= X + 1}

17 Intuition (again) C G Hoare: { P } S { Q } ~ {P} ⇒⇒⇒⇒ {Q} C R/G: R,G ⊢ { P } S { Q } ~ {P} ⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒⇒ {Q} G RRR GG

18 Goal: Parallel Composition R  G 2, G 1 ⊢ { P } S 1 ‖ S 2 { Q } R, G 1  G 2 ⊢ { P } S 1 ‖ S 2 { Q } (PAR) R  G 1, G 2 ⊢ { P } S 1 ‖ S 2 { Q }

19 Relational Post-Conditions meaning of commands a relations between pre-states and post-states Option I: {P} C {Q} – P is a one state predicate – Q is a two-state predicate Example – {true} x := x + 1 {x= x + 1}

20 Meaning of (atomic) Commands meaning of atomic commands is relations between pre-states and post-states C {Q} – P is a one state predicate – Q is a two-state predicate Example – {true} x := x + 1 {x= x + 1}

21 Meaning of (atomic) Commands meaning of atomic commands is relations between pre-states and post-states C {Q} – P is a one state predicate – Q is a two-state predicate Example – {true} x := x + 1 {x= x + 1}

22 From one- to two-state relations p( ,  ) =p(  ) A single state predicate p is preserved by a two-state relation R if – p  R  p – ,  : p(  )  R( ,  )  p(  ) – P is stable under R

23 Operations on Relations (P;Q)( ,  )=  :P( ,  )  Q( ,  ) ID( ,  )= (  =  ) R * = ID  R  (R;R)  (R;R;R)  …  – Reflexive transitive closure of R

24 Formulas ID(x) = (x = x) ID(p) =(p  p) Preserve (p)= p  p

25 Judgements c  (p, R, G, Q)

26 Informal Semantics c  (p, R, G, Q) – For every state  such that   p: Every execution of c on state  with (potential) interventions which satisfy R results in a state  such that ( ,  )  Q The execution of every atomic sub-command of c on any possible intermediate state satisfies G

27 Informal Semantics c  (p, R, G, Q) – For every state  such that   p: Every execution of c on state  with (potential) interventions which satisfy R results in a state  such that ( ,  )  Q The execution of every atomic sub-command of c on any possible intermediate state satisfies G c  [p, R, G, Q] – For every state  such that   p: Every execution of c on state  with (potential) interventions which satisfy R must terminate in a state  such that ( ,  )  Q The execution of every atomic sub-command of c on any possible intermediate state satisfies G

28 A Formal Semantics Let  C  R denotes the set of quadruples s.t. that when c executes on  1 with potential interferences by R it yields an intermediate state  2 followed by an intermediate state  3 and a final state  4 –  4 =  when c does not terminate  C  R = { :   :  R  (  *  2   2 =  3 =  4    ’, C’:  *  ( (  2 =  1   2 =  )  (  3 =    3 =  ’)   4 =  )    C’  R ) c  (p, R, G, Q) – For every   C  R such that  1  p  G If  4   :  Q

29 A Formal Semantics Let  C  R denotes the set of quadruples s.t. that when c executes on  1 with potential interferences by R it yields an intermediate state  2 followed by an intermediate state  3 and a final state  4 –  4 =  when c does not terminate  C  R = { :   :  R  (  *  2   2 =  3 =  4 )  (   ’, C’:  *  ( (  2 =  1   2 =  )  (  3 =    3 =  ’)  (  4 =     C’  R ) ) c  (p, R, G, Q) – For every   C  R such that  1  p  G If  4   :  Q

30 A Formal Semantics Let  C  R denotes the set of quadruples s.t. that when c executes on  1 with potential interferences by R it yields an intermediate state  2 followed by an intermediate state  3 and a final state  4 –  4 =  when c does not terminate  C  R = { :   :  R  (  *  2   2 =  3 =  4 )  (   ’, C’:  *  ( (  2 =  1   2 =  )  (  3 =    3 =  ’)   4 =  )    C’  R )) c  (p, R, G, Q) – For every   C  R such that  1  p  G If  4   :  Q

31 Simple Examples X := X + 1  (true, X=X, X =X+1  X=X, X =X+1) X := X + 1  (X  0, X  X, X>0  X=X, X>0) X := X + 1 ; Y := Y + 1  (X  0  Y  0, X  X  Y  Y, G, X>0  Y>0)

32 Inference Rules Define c  (p, R, G, Q) by structural induction on c Soundness – If c  (p, R, G, Q) then c  (p, R, G, Q)

33 Atomic Command {p} c {Q} c  (p, preserve(p), Q  ID, Q) (Atomic)

34 Conditional Critical Section {p  b} c {Q} await b then c  (p, preserve(p), Q  ID, Q) (Critical)

35 Sequential Composition c 1  (p 1, R, G, Q 1 ) c 1 ; c 2  (p 1, R, G, (Q 1 ; R * ; Q 2 )) (SEQ) c 2  (p 2, R, G, Q 2 ) Q 1  p 2

36 Conditionals c 1  (b 1, R, G, Q) p  b  R *  b 1 if atomic {b} then c 1 else c 2  (p, R, G, Q) (IF) c 2  (b 2, R, G, Q) p   b  R*  b 2

37 Loops c  (j  b 1, R, G, j) j  b  R *  b 1 while atomic {b} do c  (j, R, G,  b  j) (WHILE) R  Preserve(j)

38 Refinement c  (p, R, G, Q) c  (p’, R’, G’, Q’) (REFINE) p’  p Q  Q’ R’  R G  G’

39 Parallel Composition c 1  (p 1, R 1, G 1, Q 1 ) c 1 || c 2  (p 1  p 1, (R 1  R2), (G 1  G 2 ), Q) where Q= (Q 1 ; (R 1  R 2 )*; Q 2 )  (Q 2 ; (R 1  R 2 )*; Q 1 ) (PAR) c 2  (p 2, R 2, G 2, Q 2 ) G 1  R 2 G 2  R 1

40 Issues in R/G Total correctness is trickier Restrict the structure of the proofs – Sometimes global proofs are preferable Many design choices – Transitivity and Reflexivity of Rely/Guarantee – No standard set of rules Suitable for designs


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