Presentation on theme: " During WWII Japan took control of the area Ho Chi Minh who was a communist supporter who formed the Vietminh to overthrow Japanese forces that took."— Presentation transcript:
During WWII Japan took control of the area Ho Chi Minh who was a communist supporter who formed the Vietminh to overthrow Japanese forces that took control during WWII Being enemies of Japan the U.S. sent military aid to the Vietminh When Japan lost WWII, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent
French troops invade to drive out the Vietminh France appealed to U..S.. for help, but U..S. was torn. Anti-colonization and Anti- communist With China falling to communism and the start off the Korean War the U..S. decides to give France military aid By 1954 the U..S.. is paying for ¾ off France’s war costs
I. Why did the U.S. send troops to Vietnam? A. Ho Chi Minh defeated the French in 1954 and Vietnam was split into North and South. B. North Vietnam was led by Communist Ho Chi Minh- South Vietnam was led by U.S. backed Diem.
Geneva Accords Vietnam is also divided in ½ at the 17 th parallel free elections were to be held in 1956 Diem refused to allow elections in 1956 because Minh was sure to win Vietnam heads for a Civil War with the U..S.. caught in the middle
C. Many South Vietnamese opposed U.S. backed Diem.
D. Vietcong were South Vietnamese guerrillas who were backed by the North and fought against the South’s government
E. President John F. Kennedy believed in the Domino Theory, the idea that if one Southeast Asian country fell to communism, the rest would also, like a row of dominos. F. In 1961, he sent military advisors to help Diem fight the Vietcong
Diem’s assassination However unpopular Diem had been he was also a strong political leader Without Diem South Vietnam collapses US must get more involved
G Lyndon Johnson became President and sent more aid to South Vietnam H Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- after a U.S. ship is attacked, Congress passed this which allowed President Johnson to take “all necessary measures” to prevent another attack I. Thus, the war escalated and by 1968 there were over 500,000 troops fighting in the Vietnam War.
An intense bombing campaign against North Vietnam.
J. American soldiers faced many hardships fighting a “guerilla war” in jungle terrain, going on search and destroy missions.
US tactics: Search and destroy missions Find the enemy, bomb them, destroy the supply lines, and force them out into the open Napalm Agent Orange would burn out jungle cover
A Viet Cong prisoner awaits interrogation at a Special Forces detachment in Thuong Duc, Vietnam, 15 miles (25 km) west of Danang, January 1967
Troops of the 1st Air Cavalry Division check houses while patrolling an area 25 miles (40 km) north of Qui Nhon as part of Operation Thayer, October The mission was designed to clear out a mountain range where two battalions of North Vietnamese were believed to be preparing for an attack on an airstrip.
In Long Khanh province, Vietnam, R. Richter of the 4th Battalion, 503rd Infantry, 173rd Airborne Brigade, left, and Sgt. Daniel E. Spencer await the helicopter that will airlift their dead comrade, 1966
Soldiers carry a wounded comrade to safety, 1969
Search-and-clear operation- Who is who? A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a Viet Cong suspect to the rear during a search-and-clear operation by the battalion 15 miles (24 km) west of Danang air base, August 1965Marines
Traversing the jungle During Operation Hastings, Marines of Company H, 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment take to the water as they move to join other elements of their battalion in Dong Ha, Vietnam, July 1966
Burning camp A Viet Cong base camp burns as Pfc. Raymond Rumpa of St. Paul, Minnesota, walks away with his 45- pound 90mm rifle in My Tho, Vietnam, April 1968
Helped by buddies
Waiting for evacuation Two wounded American soldiers await airlift to base hospital to treat injuries suffered in battlebattle
Khe Sanh, a US Marine base, was one of the most remote outposts in Vietnam and was facing a full-scale seige by the North Vietnamese Forces. On the morning of January 21, 1968, at 5:30 am, the Vietnamese Army Forces launched the awaited attack by a barrage of shells, mortars and rockets, and the siege of Khe Sanh began.
During the first two days, 18 Marines were killed instantly and 40 were wounded. By the end of February, more than 1300 artillery rounds had hit the Khe Sahn Marine base and its outposts During the first three weeks of March things became relatively quiet around the base when the North Vietnamese Forces retreated into the jungle.
Without warning on the 22 March, the North Vietnamese launched a massive attack on Khe Sanh. More than 1000 rounds hit the base, at a rate of a hundred every hour. By June 1968, highly mobile American forces were in the area, and the base no longer needed defending.
On the Tet New Year, the Vietcong forces went into action and launched coordinated fierce attacks on more than a 100 cities and towns over the length and breadth of South Vietnam North Vietnam lost The Americans lost 2500 men in the Tet Offensive.
One of the most horrific incidents of violence against civilians during the Vietnam War. A company of American soldiers brutally killed the majority of the population of the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai in March Though exact numbers remain unconfirmed, it is believed that as many as 500 people including women, children and the elderly were killed in the My Lai Massacre.
Higher-ranking U.S. Army officers managed to cover up the events of that day for a year before revelations by a soldier who had heard of the massacre sparked a wave of international outrage and led to a special investigation into the matter. In 1970, a U.S. Army board charged 14 officers of crimes related to the events at My Lai; only one was convicted.
The brutality of the My Lai killings and the extent of the cover-up exacerbated growing antiwar sentiment on the home front in the United States and further divided the nation over the continuing American presence in Vietnam.
The majority of protests took place on college campuses. This minority included many students as well as prominent artists and intellectuals and members of the hippie movement, a growing number of young people who rejected authority and embraced the drug culture.
On October 21, 1967, one of the most prominent anti-war demonstrations took place, as some 100,000 protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial; around 30,000 of them continued in a march on the Pentagon later that night. After a brutal confrontation with the soldiers and U.S. Marshals protecting the building, hundreds of demonstrators were arrested.
On April 30, 1970, President Richard M. Nixon appeared on national television to announce the invasion of Cambodia by the United States and the need to draft 150,000 more soldiers for an expansion of the Vietnam War effort. This provoked massive protests on campuses throughout the country.
At Kent State University in Ohio, protesters launched a demonstration that included setting fire to the ROTC building, prompting the governor of Ohio to dispatch 900 National Guardsmen to the campus. Twenty-eight guardsmen opened fire on a crowd, killing four students and wounding nine. Following the killings, the unrest across the country escalated even further. Almost five hundred colleges were shut down or disrupted by protests.
K Richard Nixon is elected President- promises to end the war
Another factor that caused public support for the war to end. The New York Times began publishing portions of the Pentagon Papers. The papers were a study ordered by the former Secretary of Defense and documented the history of US involvement in Vietnam.
They revealed that the Executive Branch had lied to Congress concerning the war. Presidents had made secret decisions and undertaken unapproved military actions. The public was shocked and appalled and support for the war quickly dwindled.
L Cease-fire is reached M Last U.S. troops leave Vietnam N South Vietnam falls to North Vietnamese communist forces—Saigon falls.
Signed by the U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the leaders of the Vietcong. Called for: The withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam within 60. The release of prisoners of War All parties involved would end military activities in Laos and Cambodia The 17 th parallel would continue to divide North and South Vietnam.
A reaction to the Vietnam War. Congress passed it in 1973 when the United States withdrew from combat operations in Vietnam after more than a decade.Vietnam War The War Powers Act says that a president has the latitude to commit troops to combat zones, but, within 48 hours of doing so he must formally notify Congress and provide his explanation for doing so.
If Congress does not agree with the troop commitment, the president must remove them from combat within 60 to 90 days.
It was an extremely costly war with over 58,000 Americans dead and over 150,000 wounded in battle. Veterans developed post traumatic stress disorders. Vets became alcoholics and drug addicts. Soldiers were not given a warm welcome home.