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Engaging health care providers in ARV based prevention Edwina Wright MD PhD Alfred Hospital, Monash University The Burnet Institute World AIDS Conference,

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Presentation on theme: "Engaging health care providers in ARV based prevention Edwina Wright MD PhD Alfred Hospital, Monash University The Burnet Institute World AIDS Conference,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Engaging health care providers in ARV based prevention Edwina Wright MD PhD Alfred Hospital, Monash University The Burnet Institute World AIDS Conference, Melbourne July 2014 Symposium on ARV-based Prevention in Practice: Social and Behavioural Aspects Picture credits provided at end of talk

2 Recipient of unrestricted funding for research from Gilead, Abbott, Janssen, Boeringher Ingelheim Payments received for lectures for ViiV and consultancy for ViiV, Gilead, MSD and Abbott: used for research purposes only Conflicts of Interest

3 Outline Focus on doctors & other healthcare workers involved in prescribing and providing antiretrovirals for – Treatment as Prevention (TasP) – Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) Address the challenges and obstacles and offer some solutions Non-occupational postexposure prophylaxis (NPEP) 1 1. Jain and Mayer, AIDS 2014

4 TasP Challenges & Obstacles Clinicians’ perceptions around their role in HIV prevention Balancing duty of care to patients vs duty of care to partners and broader community Confidence in the science of early ART Patients eligibility, readiness and ability to start ART

5 Clinicians’ perceptions around their role in HIV prevention Strategies available in clinical practice (theoretically at least) Which strategies involve clinicians?

6 CLINICAL BENEFIT to INDIVIDUAL based upon clinical, virological, immunological and pathophysiological studies TRANSMISSION REDUCTION BENEFIT to other individuals based on clinical studies TRANSMISSION REDUCTION BENEFIT to the community (ecological benefit) based on observational and prospective cohort studies Palella,1998; Ananworanich 2012; Hunt, 2012; Zeng, 2012; Cohen, 2011, Das, 2010; Geng, 2012; Tanser, 2013; Montaner, 2014 Balancing duty of care to patients vs duty of care to partners and broader community Risk of coercion of doctors and patients

7 Balancing duty to patient care vs duty to prevent HIV transmission to others and community CLINICAL BENEFIT to INDIVIDUAL based upon clinical, virological, immunological and pathophysiological studies TRANSMISSION REDUCTION BENEFIT to other individuals based on clinical studies TRANSMISSION REDUCTION BENEFIT to the community (ecological benefit) based on observational and prospective cohort studies Palella,1998; Ananworanich 2012; Hunt, 2012; Zeng, 2012; Cohen, 2011, Das, 2010; Geng, 2012; Tanser, 2013; Montaner, Rodger et al, CROI 2014

8 Adapted from De Cock, El-Sadr NEJM, 2013 Lower levels Evidence CD4>500 BIII CD AII CD4 <350 AI Higher levels Evidence Confidence in the science of early ART

9 Patients’ eligibilty, readiness and ability to start ART Identifying people eligible for TasP may not be straightforward – Sub-Saharan Africa, 34% of HIV+ participants surveyed in TEMPRANO study were unaware of partner’s HIV status 1 …fear and stigma... – WHO guidelines for HIV serodifferent couples hard to implement 2 Stigma again… – Higher rates LTFU women started on ART during pregnancy vs those started on ART following WHO stage 3/4 illness 3 ART access – Patients unable to afford ART – ART not available, or is not indicated according to country guidelines 1.Kouame et al, AIDS WHO, Tenthani, et al. AIDS 2014

10 JASON 32 year old gay male, single HIV+ 2 weeks ago Has booked 5 month holiday starting in 3 weeks CD4+ cells = 640/mm 3 VL = 4,500 copies/ml Wants to start treatment now Patient readiness and need for time to develop therapeutic relationship Case developed by Dr David Baker for ASHM’s Early Treatment Workshop 2014

11 Solutions Clinicians already play a key role in HIV prevention Countries need to form HIV societies working in partnership with HIV affected communities to support and educate clinicians to better understand how to fully integrate TasP into clinical setting Clinicians’ first responsibility is to the patient When considering TasP in patients with  CD4+ cells Get to know one’s patients Socioeconomic status Drug use/ Depression Recognise that stigma will shape patients’ treatment decisions Clinicians work with partners to remove laws that stigmatise our patients Resist coercion TEMPRANO Study

12 PrEP Challenges and Obstacles Clinician awareness, willingness to prescribe and experience Opposition and stigma Identifying eligible patients Monitoring patients’ health, adherence and behaviour during PrEP therapy Poor global access to and cost of PrEP

13 Clinician awareness, willingness to prescribe and experience Clinician willingness to prescribe PrEP – 74% willing in survey of 573 physicians in US and Canada in Chief concerns: adherence, cost, toxicity, lack of data on PrEP use in ‘real world’ Main risk factor that would prompt PrEP prescription was the person having an HIV+ partner not on ART – 43% willing in survey of 56 healthcare providers in Canada in Clinician awareness – PrEP awareness 57.5% in survey of 186 healthcare providers in Peru 3 Clinician experience in prescribing PrEP – 9% in USA 1 1. Karris et al, CID Sharma et al, Annual Canadian Conference on HIV Research Tang et al, AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2014

14 Opposition & STIGMA

15 Identifying eligible patients CDC guidance document 1 – Ask questions about sexual and injecting risk taking – Clues: recent STIs or pregnancy in the past 6/12 1.CDC PrEP for prevention of HIV in the United States, 2014 Clinical Practice Guideline May be difficult for patients to provide candid answer to these questions? Risk of disappointing doctors/ losing their trust Risk of criminal liability in some jurisdictions and countries

16 Monitoring patients’ health, adherence and behaviour during PrEP therapy PrEP and clinical trials – Monthly bloods, surveys, drug levels, ancillary support around adherence and behaviour PrEP and the real world – Capacity to evaluate acute HIV infection, toxicity, adherence and behaviour very different – ? More difficult in low- and middle- income settings 1.CDC PrEP for prevention of HIV in the United States, 2014 Clinical Practice Guideline. 2

17 PrEP availability July and cost Open label extension study Demonstration study New clinical trial Studies closed- futility PRELUDE QPrEP 1. Avaaz, 2014 Cost Truvada: A $900 month L= licensed L

18 Solutions Clinician awareness  over time  data from demonstration projects published => clinicians  informed &  confident about PrEP 1,2 Licensing of PrEP drugs needed to increase clinicians’ experience with PrEP HIV clinicians & societies & peak bodies partner to remove laws that stigmatise our patients 1. Liu et al, CROI Grant et al, Lancet ID 2014

19 Solutions Involvement nurses, peers & computer- assisted questionnaires may permit greater patient candor re sexual/ injecting practices Partner against stigma Use clinical guidelines for monitoring PrEP only available through demonstration projects globally except US WHO: PrEP in MSM prevention packages 1 Clinicians/ HIV societies work with peak bodies to lobby regulators/pharma to license drugs for PrEP urgently 1. WHO, HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Key populations, 2014

20 Clinicians are experienced in HIV prevention – Need more guidance, support and experience in area of TasP and PrEP Clinicians need HIV societies and strong partnerships with HIV communities and peak bodies to optimise their role in ARV based HIV prevention – Stigma and criminalisation are key factors that will mitigate clinicians’ efforts in ARV based HIV prevention Await further science from START/TEMPRANO and PrEP Demonstration Projects to build clinicians’ confidence Rapid licensing and subsidization of PrEP drugs urgently needed Conclusions

21 THANK YOU*

22 Homebased testing : AIDS 2014 legacy : Crossroads: alere determine combo: PrEP ribbonhttp://www.google.com.au/search? PEPimage End HIVhttp://www.baywindows.com/FENWAY-HEALTH-COMMENDS-FDA-ON-APPROVAL-OF-FTC-TDF-AS-PRE-EXPOSURE-PROPHYLAXIS-FOR-HIV-PRE Tasp graphic: Pronto: Microbicide: needle exchange sex positionshttp://www.betterworldbooks.com/position-sex-card-deck-id aspx IVF: BC map: START logo: Truvada t shirt: AHF leaflet: Map: freeworldmaps.net Picture credits


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