Presentation on theme: "Communism Spreads to Asia. China in the 20 th Century."— Presentation transcript:
Communism Spreads to Asia
China in the 20 th Century
China is dominated by foreign powers in the 19th Century The Opium War (1839-1842) allows the British to force themselves into China. Soon all powers develop “Spheres of Influence” and the weakened Chinese government can do nothing to stop it. Extraterritoriality: Foreigners living in China were not subject to Chinese laws.
The turn of the century, thanks to the United States supporting an “Open-Door Policy,” allowed China to remain in control of their lands by keeping the Western powers satisfied that they would not have to conquer Chinese territory to have a beneficial economic status there.
China did not have political stability! The Chinese Manchu dynasty come to an end in 1911. “The Era of Civil War” Many different groups and forces within China tried to gain control of the country. The Nationalists were led by Sun Yat-sen (died in 1925) and, later military hero, Chiang Kai- shek (sometimes called Jiang Jieshi) and these men worked to unify the country. The opposing group, the Communists, was led by Mao Zedung.
Chiang Kai-shek focused his reforms on the rising Urban Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.” Chiang led an attack against the Communists in Shanghai (South China) in 1927, killed thousands, and forced the Communist leaders into hiding.
The Long March The Communist fled and tried to establish control there. They were again attacked by Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist forces and surrounded. Mao and the Communists broke through the lines and began the Long March to a base in Northwest China.
The Long March The Long March took the communist People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on a 6000 mile journey and of the 90,000 that started only 9,000 reached the safety of the base. With these 9,000, Mao begins to rebuild the Communist movement in China. Mao believes that a revolution in China must come from the peasants that represent 80% of the Chinese population.
Sino-Japanese War and WWII In the 1930s the Japanese attacked China and both the Nationalists and Communists fought against them. But by the end of the war, two separate governments existed in China: the Nationalist under Chiang Kai-shek (and supported by the USA) in South and Central China, and the Communist government led by Mao in the North and West and supported by the Soviet Union.
Chang and the Nationalists Flee to Taiwan After the war, the Communists and Nationalists fought for control of China and in 1949 Chiang and the remainder of the Nationalists fled to Taiwan and the Communists take over the government! Taiwan continues to call themselves the Republic of China, but has been recognized by few governments who do not wish to offend 1/5 of the world’s population.
The Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward took place in 1958. The Great Leap Forward was Mao’s attempt to modernize China’s economy so that by 1988 China would have an economy that rivaled America.
The Red Guard During the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards traveled throughout China, going to schools, universities, and institutions, spreading the teachings of Mao. Some were criticized for using violence against people who were believed to be taking things back to capitalism. The role of Red Guard was mainly to attack the "Four Olds" of society, that is what is believed to be old ideas, cultures, manners, and customs of China at the time.
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution was launched by Chinese Communist Party chairman Mao Zedong during his last decade in power (1966-76) to renew the spirit of the Chinese revolution. He feared that China would develop along the lines of the Soviet model and was concerned about his own place in history. Mao threw China's cities into turmoil in a monumental effort to reverse the historic processes underway.
Four Goals for the Cultural Revolution (Four Modernizations) To replace his designated successors with leaders more faithful to his current thinking To rectify the Chinese Communist Party To provide China's youth with a revolutionary experience To achieve some specific policy changes so as to make the educational, health care, and cultural systems less elitist
The Four Modernizations under Deng Xiaoping The Four Modernizations were designed to make China a great economic power by the early 21st century. These reforms essentially stressed economic self-reliance. The People's Republic of China decided to accelerate the modernization process by stepping up the volume of foreign trade by opening up its markets, especially the purchase of machinery from Japan and the West.
Results of the Four Modernizations By participating in such export-led growth, China was able to speed up its economic development through foreign investment, a more open market, access to advanced technologies, and management experience.
Tiananmen Square Protest A series of demonstrations led by labor activists, students, and intellectuals in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against the authoritarianism and economic policies of the ruling Chinese Communist Party and voiced calls for democratic reform within the structure of the government. In Beijing, the resulting military crackdown on the protesters by the PRC government left many civilians dead or injured.
Korea & Vietnam The Cold War in Asia
KOREA 1. The Soviet Union backed North Korea, and the U.S. backed South Korea 2. June 1950, North Korean soldiers swept across the 38 th parallel into South Korea
3. President Harry Truman lives up to the “Truman Doctrine” (protecting free people from outside influence) and sends in troops 4. MacArthur pushes across the 38 th parallel. He closes in to China and wants to use 50 atomic bombs against China. 5. Truman fires MacArthur 6. Eisenhower becomes President- peace talks began in 1951- cease fire is agreed upon in 1953.
McCarthyism 1. Americans were worried that Communists were inside the government. 2. Senator Joseph McCarthy led a campaign of accusing people all over the country of being Communist. 3. In the end, McCarthy was seen as a bully, people’s lives were ruined that were not Communist.
AMERICA’S LONGEST WAR
I. Why did the U.S. send troops to Vietnam? A. Ho Chi Minh defeated the French in 1954 and Vietnam was split into North and South. B. North Vietnam was led by Communist Ho Chi Minh- South Vietnam was led by U.S. backed Diem.
C. Many South Vietnamese opposed U.S. backed Diem.
D. Vietcong were South Vietnamese guerrillas who were backed by the North and fought against the South’s government
E. President John F. Kennedy believed in the Domino Theory, the idea that if one Southeast Asian country fell to communism, the rest would also, like a row of dominos. F. In 1961, Kennedy sent military advisors to help Diem fight the Vietcong
G. 1963- Lyndon Johnson became President and sent more aid to South Vietnam H. 1964- Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- after a U.S. ship is attacked, Congress passed this which allowed President Johnson to take “all necessary measures” to prevent another attack I. Thus, the war escalated and by 1968 there were over 500,000 troops fighting in the Vietnam War.
J. American soldiers faced many hardships fighting a “guerilla war” in jungle terrain, going on search and destroy missions.
A Viet Cong prisoner awaits interrogation at a Special Forces detachment in Thuong Duc, Vietnam, 15 miles (25 km) west of Danang, January 1967
Troops of the 1st Air Cavalry Division check houses while patrolling an area 25 miles (40 km) north of Qui Nhon as part of Operation Thayer, October 1966. The mission was designed to clear out a mountain range where two battalions of North Vietnamese were believed to be preparing for an attack on an airstrip.
In Long Khanh province, Vietnam, R. Richter of the 4th Battalion, 503rd Infantry, 173rd Airborne Brigade, left, and Sgt. Daniel E. Spencer await the helicopter that will airlift their dead comrade, 1966
Swampy Terrain Soldiers carry a wounded comrade to safety, 1969
Search-and-clear operation- Who is who? A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a Viet Cong suspect to the rear during a search-and-clear operation by the battalion 15 miles (24 km) west of Danang air base, August 1965Marines
Traversing the jungle During Operation Hastings, Marines of Company H, 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment take to the water as they move to join other elements of their battalion in Dong Ha, Vietnam, July 1966
Burning camp A Viet Cong base camp burns as Pfc. Raymond Rumpa of St. Paul, Minnesota, walks away with his 45-pound 90mm rifle in My Tho, Vietnam, April 1968
Helped by buddies
Waiting for evacuation Two wounded American soldiers await airlift to base hospital to treat injuries suffered in battlebattle
TET OFFENSIVE- 1968
K. 1968- Richard Nixon is elected President- promises to end the war
L. 1973- Cease-fire is reached M. 1974- Last U.S. troops leave Vietnam N. 1975- South Vietnam falls to North Vietnamese communist forces
The Lessons of Vietnam After the end of Persian Gulf War in 1991, Colin Powell, then chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, outlined his vision for efficient and decisive military action. His plan is now referred to as the Powell Doctrine. An earlier version of the Powell Doctrine was articulated by President Ronald Reagan's Defense Secretary, Casper Weinberger, in 1984. Weinberger argued that the United States should only commit troops to combat after six tests had been met: 1. Is A Vital U.S. Interest At Stake? Before the United States goes to war, there must a clear risk to national security 2. Will We Commit Sufficient Resources To Win? Force, when used, should be overwhelming and disproportionate to the force used by the enemy. 3. Are Our Objectives Clearly Defined? In Powell’s words: "We owe it to the men and women who go in harm's way to make sure that this is always the case and that their lives are not squandered for unclear purposes." In addition, there must be a clear exit strategy from the conflict in which the military is engaged. 4. Will We Sustain the Commitment? Is the government prepared to sustain the effort if things go wrong. 5. Is There A Reasonable Expectation that the Public and Congress Will Support the Operation? There must be strong support for the campaign by the general public. 6. Have we exhausted our other options? Military action should be used only as a last resort.