3China is dominated by foreign powers in the 19th Century The Opium War ( ) allows the British to force themselves into China. Soon all powers develop “Spheres of Influence” and the weakened Chinese government can do nothing to stop it.Extraterritoriality: Foreigners living in China were not subject to Chinese laws.Background: the British were importing tea, silk, and porcelain from the Chinese in exchange for raw cotton. Since it was not an equal trade the British had to also pay in silver. In order to offset the trade imbalance the British turned to the sell Opium, grown in British controlled India by the British East India Company. When the Chinese gov’t opposed the import of Opium, they closed the ports to British trade. To reopen the port the British went to war. At the end the Treaty of Nanjing opens 5 ports to British trade, limit taxes on British goods, pay for the war, and gave Britain the port of Hong Kong.
4The turn of the century, thanks to the United States supporting an “Open-Door Policy,” allowed China to remain in control of their lands by keeping the Western powers satisfied that they would not have to conquer Chinese territory to have a beneficial economic status there.[Be sure the students see the big picture: the Chinese government tried to stop the British from selling Opium to the Chinese citizens. The British begin a three year war to ensure that they can continue to sell the drugs in China.]
5China did not have political stability! The Chinese Manchu dynasty come to an end in “The Era of Civil War”Many different groups and forces within China tried to gain control of the country. The Nationalists were led by Sun Yat-sen (died in 1925) and, later military hero, Chiang Kai-shek (sometimes called Jiang Jieshi) and these men worked to unify the country.The opposing group, the Communists, was led by Mao Zedung.Use Google Earth to show the Forbidden City, the royal palace of the Chinese Emperor.
6Chiang Kai-shek focused his reforms on the rising Urban Middle Class and sought to make his improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek said, “The Japanese are a disease of the skin, but Communists are a disease of the heart.”Chiang led an attack against the Communists in Shanghai (South China) in 1927, killed thousands, and forced the Communist leaders into hiding.
7The Long MarchThe Communist fled and tried to establish control there. They were again attacked by Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist forces and surrounded. Mao and the Communists broke through the lines and began the Long March to a base in Northwest China.
8The Long MarchThe Long March took the communist People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on a 6000 mile journey and of the 90,000 that started only 9,000 reached the safety of the base. With these 9,000, Mao begins to rebuild the Communist movement in China. Mao believes that a revolution in China must come from the peasants that represent 80% of the Chinese population.A good distinction is that the Nationalists under Chang focused on the rising Middle Class for their support and focused on controlling urban areas. Mao and the Communists turned their attention to the peasants in the rural areas, which made up about 80% of the Chinese population.
9Sino-Japanese War and WWII In the 1930s the Japanese attacked China and both the Nationalists and Communists fought against them. But by the end of the war, two separate governments existed in China: the Nationalist under Chiang Kai-shek (and supported by the USA) in South and Central China, and the Communist government led by Mao in the North and West and supported by the Soviet Union.
10Chang and the Nationalists Flee to Taiwan After the war, the Communists and Nationalists fought for control of China and in 1949 Chiang and the remainder of the Nationalists fled to Taiwan and the Communists take over the government!Taiwan continues to call themselves the Republic of China, but has been recognized by few governments who do not wish to offend 1/5 of the world’s population.This begins a very interesting history of Taiwan.
11The Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap Forward took place in The Great Leap Forward was Mao’s attempt to modernize China’s economy so that by 1988 China would have an economy that rivaled America.See Trade Data.
12The Red GuardDuring the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards traveled throughout China, going to schools, universities, and institutions, spreading the teachings of Mao. Some were criticized for using violence against people who were believed to be taking things back to capitalism.The role of Red Guard was mainly to attack the "Four Olds" of society, that is what is believed to be old ideas, cultures, manners, and customs of China at the time.Understand that those who did not conform to the New China, were taken away to forced labor camps or executed.
13Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural Revolution was launched by Chinese Communist Party chairman Mao Zedong during his last decade in power ( ) to renew the spirit of the Chinese revolution.He feared that China would develop along the lines of the Soviet model and was concerned about his own place in history.Mao threw China's cities into turmoil in a monumental effort to reverse the historic processes underway.Again, millions of Chinese citizens were forced to accept the new way of life of the Communist or they were removed. Millions were killed in the Cultural revolution for little offenses to the government. China’s Human rights record is not high and many considered boycotting the Olympic Games (2008) in protest.
14Four Goals for the Cultural Revolution (Four Modernizations) To replace his designated successors with leaders more faithful to his current thinkingTo rectify the Chinese Communist PartyTo provide China's youth with a revolutionary experienceTo achieve some specific policy changes so as to make the educational, health care, and cultural systems less elitist
15The Four Modernizations under Deng Xiaoping The Four Modernizations were designed to make China a great economic power by the early 21st century. These reforms essentially stressed economic self-reliance.The People's Republic of China decided to accelerate the modernization process by stepping up the volume of foreign trade by opening up its markets, especially the purchase of machinery from Japan and the West.
16Results of the Four Modernizations By participating in such export-led growth, China was able to speed up its economic development through foreign investment, a more open market, access to advanced technologies, and management experience.
17Tiananmen Square Protest A series of demonstrations led by labor activists, students, and intellectuals in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against the authoritarianism and economic policies of the ruling Chinese Communist Party and voiced calls for democratic reform within the structure of the government.In Beijing, the resulting military crackdown on the protesters by the PRC government left many civilians dead or injured.
19KOREA1. The Soviet Union backed North Korea, and the U.S. backed South Korea2. June 1950, North Korean soldiers swept across the 38th parallel into South Korea
203. President Harry Truman lives up to the “Truman Doctrine” (protecting free people from outside influence) and sends in troops4. MacArthur pushes across the 38th parallel. He closes in to China and wants to use 50 atomic bombs against China.5. Truman fires MacArthur6. Eisenhower becomes President- peace talks began in cease fire is agreed upon in 1953.
21McCarthyism1. Americans were worried that Communists were inside the government.2. Senator Joseph McCarthy led a campaign of accusing people all over the country of being Communist.3. In the end, McCarthy was seen as a bully, people’s lives were ruined that were not Communist.
23I. Why did the U.S. send troops to Vietnam? A. Ho Chi Minh defeated the French in 1954 and Vietnam was split into North and South.B. North Vietnam was led by Communist Ho Chi Minh- South Vietnam was led by U.S. backed Diem.
24C. Many South Vietnamese opposed U.S. backed Diem.
25D. Vietcong were South Vietnamese guerrillas who were backed by the North and fought against the South’s government
27E. President John F. Kennedy believed in the Domino Theory, the idea that if one Southeast Asian country fell to communism, the rest would also, like a row of dominos.F. In 1961, Kennedy sent military advisors to help Diem fight the Vietcong
28G. 1963- Lyndon Johnson became President and sent more aid to South Vietnam H Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- after a U.S. ship is attacked, Congress passed this which allowed President Johnson to take “all necessary measures” to prevent another attackI. Thus, the war escalated and by 1968 there were over 500,000 troops fighting in the Vietnam War.
29J. American soldiers faced many hardships fighting a “guerilla war” in jungle terrain, going on search and destroy missions.
30A Viet Cong prisoner awaits interrogation at a Special Forces detachment in Thuong Duc, Vietnam, 15 miles (25 km) west of Danang, January 1967
31Troops of the 1st Air Cavalry Division check houses while patrolling an area 25 miles (40 km) north of Qui Nhon as part of Operation Thayer, October The mission was designed to clear out a mountain range where two battalions of North Vietnamese were believed to be preparing for an attack on an airstrip.
32In Long Khanh province, Vietnam, R In Long Khanh province, Vietnam, R. Richter of the 4th Battalion, 503rd Infantry, 173rd Airborne Brigade, left, and Sgt. Daniel E. Spencer await the helicopter that will airlift their dead comrade, 1966
33Swampy TerrainSoldiers carry a wounded comrade to safety, 1969
34Search-and-clear operation- Who is who? A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a Viet Cong suspect to the rear during a search-and-clear operation by the battalion 15 miles (24 km) west of Danang air base, August 1965
35Traversing the jungleDuring Operation Hastings, Marines of Company H, 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment take to the water as they move to join other elements of their battalion in Dong Ha, Vietnam, July 1966
36Burning campA Viet Cong base camp burns as Pfc. Raymond Rumpa of St. Paul, Minnesota, walks away with his 45-pound 90mm rifle in My Tho, Vietnam, April 1968
40K. 1968- Richard Nixon is elected President- promises to end the war
41L. 1973- Cease-fire is reached M Last U.S. troops leave VietnamN South Vietnam falls to North Vietnamese communist forces
42The Lessons of VietnamAfter the end of Persian Gulf War in 1991, Colin Powell, then chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, outlined his vision for efficient and decisive military action. His plan is now referred to as the Powell Doctrine. An earlier version of the Powell Doctrine was articulated by President Ronald Reagan's Defense Secretary, Casper Weinberger, in 1984.Weinberger argued that the United States should only commit troops to combat after six tests had been met:1. Is A Vital U.S. Interest At Stake?Before the United States goes to war, there must a clear risk to national security2. Will We Commit Sufficient Resources To Win?Force, when used, should be overwhelming and disproportionate to the force used by the enemy.3. Are Our Objectives Clearly Defined?In Powell’s words: "We owe it to the men and women who go in harm's way to make sure that this is always the case and that their lives are not squandered for unclear purposes." In addition, there must be a clear exit strategy from the conflict in which the military is engaged.4. Will We Sustain the Commitment?Is the government prepared to sustain the effort if things go wrong.5. Is There A Reasonable Expectation that the Public and Congress Will Support the Operation?There must be strong support for the campaign by the general public.6. Have we exhausted our other options?Military action should be used only as a last resort.