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19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Online APEC multilingual dictionary: An essential tool for mutual understanding Deny Arnos Kwary PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Online APEC multilingual dictionary: An essential tool for mutual understanding Deny Arnos Kwary PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Online APEC multilingual dictionary: An essential tool for mutual understanding Deny Arnos Kwary PhD Fellow, Centre for Lexicography, Department of Language and Business Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University, Denmark.

2 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Overview of the Presentation 1. Introduction 2. Lexical problems in APEC publications 3. Principles of Creating an Online APEC Multilingual Dictionary 3.1 Theoretical Considerations 3.2 Dictionary Data 3.3 Dictionary Design Inter-Active Terminology for Europe United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database The Proposed Design for the APEC Dictionary 4. Conclusion

3 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 1. Introduction ›APEC  21 member economies  speak different languages:  Non-standardized language (i.e. terms) in APEC publications.  Special definitions of some terms used in APEC publications. ›Current solution: online APEC glossary (http://www.apec.org/apec/tools/glossary.html)  Is not quite helpful to solve lexicographical problems  Incurs high lexicographical information costs. ›APEC + RELC = Better solution?

4 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 2. Lexical problems in APEC publications (1) ›First Problem: The non standard use of terms.  In the APEC publication entitled Trade Facilitation and Trade Liberalisation (2004: 38), the term profit and lost statement is used.  In the APEC publication entitled APEC Policy Support Unit (2008: 1), the term profit and loss account is used.  In the APEC publication entitled APEC Policy Support Unit (2008: 8), the term income statement is used.

5 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 2. Lexical problems in APEC publications (2) ›Second Problem: The difficulty in understanding the words found in the texts  may be due to the English language proficiency of the readers and the misinterpretation of culture-dependent words. ›A subject matter becomes culture-dependent when it has developed its own specific features historically and culturally within restricted geographical boundaries (Bergenholtz and Nielsen 2010).

6 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET The same English term, different local meanings: ›A sole proprietor: ‘a business owned and operated by one person’ (APEC Publication 2009 Creating International Business). ›In Indonesia, a sole proprietorship is called U.D. (Usaha Dagang) in which the owner has unlimited financial liability and is subject to personal income tax. ›In Brunei Darussalam, a sole proprietorship is not subject to income tax. ›In Peru, a personal business called EIRL (Empresa Individual de Responsabilidad Limitada) has limited financial liability.

7 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Proposed Solution: Online APEC multilingual dictionary: An essential tool for mutual understanding ›WordNet ® 3.0 defines mutual understanding as ‘sympathy of each person for the other.’ ›APEC publications are in English  Most people from its member economies are not native speakers of English  Show sympathy  Provide them with a tool for reading those publications  Online APEC multilingual dictionary. ›Dictionaries play significant roles in assisting second language learners in reading comprehension (Baxter 1980; Nation 2001; Summers 1998).

8 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 3. Principles of Creating an Online APEC Multilingual Dictionary ›The dictionary ›should be created specially for APEC member economies ›should not just be taken from the current learners’ dictionaries available for the general public.  One of the many problems of the famous British learners’ dictionaries is that they are compiled for foreign language learners in general without taking the very different cultural backgrounds of the target users into account (Tarp 2004: 228)  wrong definitions of the lemmata which are dependent on cultural knowledge.

9 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET

10 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 3.1 Theoretical Considerations ›A dictionary is “a lexicographic reference work that has been designed to fulfil one or more functions, contains lexicographic data supporting the function(s), and contains lexicographic structures that combine and link the data in order to fulfil the functions(s).” (Nielsen & Mourier 2005:121) ›The APEC dictionary can have at least two functions: 1.To assist business people and students from the member economies in reading and understanding APEC publications. 2.To set the standard terms used in APEC publications. ›Data &Structure  the lowest Lexicographical Information Costs.

11 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Lexicographical Information Costs (LIC) ›LIC: The difficulty, or convenience, that the user of a dictionary believes or feels when consulting a dictionary (Nielsen 1999). ›Two types of LIC (Nielsen 2008: ): ›Search-related information costs (SRIC): “the costs (i.e. efforts) related to the look-up acts users have to perform when consulting a dictionary in order to gain the data for which they are searching.” ›Comprehension-related information costs (CRIC): “the costs (i.e. efforts) related to the user’s ability to understand and interpret the data presented in the dictionary.”

12 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 3. 2 Dictionary Data ›Selecting the lemmata (headwords)  Keyword Analysis (AntConc) + Terminological Classifications (Kwary 2009) ›Writing the definitions  Linguists (Word-sketch) + Subject-field specialists ›Writing the equivalents and the cultural notes  Translators + Subject-field specialists

13 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 3.3 Dictionary Design Inter-Active Terminology for Europe United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database The Proposed Design for the APEC Dictionary

14 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Inter-Active Terminology for Europe (IATE) EU-specific terminology (www.iate.europa.eu) bond Finance

15 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET

16 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET The United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database (www.unterm.un.org)

17 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET bond

18 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET

19 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET

20 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET The Proposed Design for the APEC Dictionary disseminate Indonesian Disseminate (verb) Menyebarluaskan  Show examples  Show definition

21 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET The Proposed Design for the APEC Dictionary fiscal Indonesian Fiscal (noun) Fiskal  Show examples  Show definition  Show cultural note

22 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET e.g. A Singaporean reads the text below & who wants to know what QAF is. Implementation of the QAF will begin in (APEC 2004: 20) QAF (Quality Assessment Framework) Quality Assessment Framework is a quality assessment process of project proposals that await disbursements from the Operational Account and APEC Support Fund. The objective of QAF is to ensure the improvement of project proposals' quality, thus indirectly improve APEC projects' quality. QAF is a simple framework which outlines criteria and standards that previous successful projects have, and allows for assessment of the quality of new project proposals based on those criteria. QAF (Quality Assessment Framework) QAF is a simple framework which outlines criteria and standards that previous successful projects have, and allows for assessment of the quality of new project proposals based on those criteria. QAF is used in the quality assessment process of project proposals that await disbursements from the Operational Account and APEC Support Fund. The objective of QAF is to ensure the improvement of project proposals' quality, thus indirectly improve APEC projects' quality.

23 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET ›To search for QAF by using the current APEC Glossary, one has to: 1. Open the website 2. Click the Letter Q 3. Scroll down the page QAF (Quality Assessment Framework) Quality Assessment Framework is a quality assessment process of project proposals that await disbursements from the Operational Account and APEC Support Fund. The objective of QAF is to ensure the improvement of project proposals' quality, thus indirectly improve APEC projects' quality. QAF is a simple framework which outlines criteria and standards that previous successful projects have, and allows for assessment of the quality of new project proposals based on those criteria.

24 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET Open Type QAF, Press Enter. QAF QAF (Quality Assessment Framework) A simple framework which outlines criteria and standards that previous successful projects have, and allows for assessment of the quality of new project proposals based on those criteria.  See more  Show examples

25 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET 4. Conclusion ›The use of dictionaries is not cost free and that it is impossible to eliminate information costs. However, it is possible to minimize the lexicographical information costs if the dictionary is created with a user perspective. ›In addition, close cooperation among member economies and experts (lexicographers, linguists, translators, programmers, and subject field specialists) is necessary to create an APEC dictionary which can satisfy the needs of its target users. ›This dictionary will play an important role in achieving mutual understanding which is required in order to meet the Bogor Goals of free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region.

26 APEC–RELC INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR DENY ARNOS KWARY 19 APRIL 2010 HANDELSHØJSKOLEN AARHUS UNIVERSITET THANK YOU


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