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X-RAYS IN MOTION “Viewing dynamic studies of the human body”

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Presentation on theme: "X-RAYS IN MOTION “Viewing dynamic studies of the human body”"— Presentation transcript:

1 X-RAYS IN MOTION “Viewing dynamic studies of the human body”
FLUOROSCOPY X-RAYS IN MOTION “Viewing dynamic studies of the human body”

2 HISTORY Thomas Edison, 1896 Screen (zinc-cadmium sulfide) placed over patient’s body in x-ray beam Radiologist looked directly at screen Red goggles-30 minutes before exam 1950 image intensifiers developed

3 PRESENTLY…. Fluoro viewed at same level of brightness as radiographs ( lux) X-ray tube under table/over table or in c-arm Image intensifier above patient in carriage Carriage also has the power drive control, spot film selection and tube shutters

4 RED GOGGLES? The eye Light passes thru the cornea
Between the cornea and lens is iris Iris acts as a diaphragm Contracts in bright, dilates in dark

5 Light hits lens which focuses the light onto the retina where the cones and rods await
Cones- central Rods - periphery

6 RODS CONES Sensitive to low light
Used in night vision (scotopic vision) Dims objects seen better peripherally Color blind Do not perceive detail Less sensitive to light (threshold of 100 lux) Will respond to bright light Daylight vision (phototopic vision) Perceive color, differences in brightness Perceive fine detail

7 IN FLUOROSCOPY The winner is…… CONES!!

8 FLUORO X-RAY TUBES Operate at .5 to 5mA. Why do they operate at such low mA stations? They are designed to operate for a longer period of time with higher kVp for longer scale contrast. kVp dependent on body section kVp and mA can be controlled to select image brightness Maintaining (automatic) of the brightness us called ABC or ABS or AGC (control,stabilization gain control)

9 Fluoro X-ray Tubes Fixed…may be mounted no closer than 15 inches or 38 cm to patient Mobile may be brought no closer than 12 inches or 30 cm to patient


11 THE SEQUENCE Beam exits the patient
Hits the input phosphore(cesium iodide CsI tightly packed needles…produce excellent spatial resolution) Converts x-rays to visible light

12 The sequence cont. Hits photocathode (Cesium and antimony components)
Emits electrons when struck by light (photoemission)

13 The sequence cont The potential difference within the image intensifier tube is a constant 25,000 volts Electrons are accelerated to anode Anode is a circular plate with hole for electrons to go thru. Hits output phosphor which interact with electrons and produce light

Electrostatic lenses (focusing devices) Accelerate and focus electron beam “The engineering aspect of maintaining proper electron travel is called electron optics”

15 Continuing the sequence
Electrons hit output phosphor (zinc cadmium sulfide) with high kinetic energy producing an increased amount of light Each photoelectron at the output phosphor has more light photons

16 FLUX GAIN Ratio of number of light photons at the output phosphor to the number of x-rays at the input phosphor Flux gain = # of output light photon # of input x-ray photons

17 MINIFICATION GAIN Ratio of the square of the diameter of the input phosphor to the square of the diameter of the output phosphor OR # of electrons produces at large input screen ( 6 inches) squared, compressed into the area of small output screen ( 1 inch) squared Try the math 6 inches squared = 36 1 inch squared = 1 Minification gain = 36

18 BRIGHTNESS GAIN Minification gain x flux gain
Increases illumination level of an image Ratio of the intensity of the illumination ot the output phosphor to the radiation intensity at the input phosphor Brightness gain of ,000 Maintaining (automatic) of the brightness us called ABC or ABS or AGC (control,stabilization gain control)

19 CONVERSION FACTOR Ratio of intensity of illumination at the output phosphor (measured in Candela per meter squared) to the radiation intensity at the input phosphor (mR per sec) Cd/mr squared mr/s

20 MULTIFIELD IMAGE INTENSIFICATION Allows focal point change to reduce field of view and magnify the image

21 Some facts about multifield image intensifiers
Standard component on most machines Always built in in digital units Most popular is 25/17 Trifield tubes are 25/17/12 or 23/15/10

Numeric dimensions refer to the input phosphor (25/17) Smaller dimension (25/17) result in magnified images At 25-all photoelectrons are accelerated to output phosphor

Smaller dimension – voltage of focusing lenses is increased Electron focal spot moves away from the output. Only the electrons from the center of input strike the output

24 PROS CONS Only central region of input is used
Spatial resolution is better (think of it as the umbra!) Lower noise, higher contrast resolution Minification gain is reduced = dimmer image To compensate must increase mA Increase patient dose


26 COMING SOON Coupling (Vidicon, Plumbicon) Fiber Optics Lens coupling
Beam splitting Modulation Size of the video signal directly proportion to the light intensity received by x-ray tube. The signal received by the TV tube is modulated

27 Image recording Cassette loaded spot film Photospot camera
When recording image, the radiographic mA goes from a low mA to high mA. Why? Photospot camera Patient dose increases with size of film

28 DIGITAL FLUOROSCOPY Bushong, Chapter 27 pgs 437-441
Reference: Chapter 12, Fauber pg to include figure 12-6

29 Why is it easy to convert a conventional fluoro unit to a digital one?
QUESTION Why is it easy to convert a conventional fluoro unit to a digital one?

30 Facts about digital fluoro
Image acquisition is faster Can post process Similar equipment to a conventional fluoro room except two monitors Operates in radiographic mode

31 DF and radiographic mode
Hundreds of mA vs 5 mA Due to the high generator required for DF the x-ray beam is pulsed progressive fluoroscopy

Generator can be switched on and off rapidly Interrogation time Tube switched on and meets selected levels of kVp and mA Extinction time Time required for the tube to be switched off Each must have times of less than one 1 ms.

33 CCD Instead of a vidicom or plumbicom (see figure 27-8, pg 440 Bushong) Discuss Box 27-1 on pg 441

34 FPIR (pg 440-442) Flat panel Image receptor Replacing CCD’s
Made of cesium Iodide pixel detectors Lighter, smaller than image intensifiers No cassette needed

35 FPIR CONT. Improvement to image as the spatial resolution is uniform and distortion free High DQE Improved contrast Rectangular image See page 442 Box 27-2

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