Presentation on theme: "Interruption and Turn-taking"— Presentation transcript:
1 Interruption and Turn-taking Claus BrockmeyerCaroline Smieja
2 Turn construction units (TCUs) TCUs are turns at talk, e.g. in sentences, clauses, single words or phrases
3 The two components of the turn-taking model 1: TCUs have the property of projectability: it is possible for participants to project, in the course of TCU, what sort of unit it is and at what point it is likely to end.2: TCUs have transition-relevance places (TRPs) at their boundaries: at the end of each TCU there is the possibility for legitimate transition between speakers (example)
4 Interruptions - definition (West / Zimmermann; 1975,1983) have the potential to disrupt a speaker´s turn and disorganize ongoing construction of the conversational topic of the first speaker;regarded as a hostile act
5 Interruptions - definition (West / Zimmermann; 1975,1983) A second speaker begins speaking at what could not be a TRP;a violation of the first speaker´s turn;a device for exercising power and control in a conversation;a deep intrusion & penetration of first speaker´s utterance;
6 1. Interruption definition: (Jennifer Coates) Violation of turn-taking rules of conversation. The next speaker begins to speak while the current speaker is still speaking, at a point in the current speaker`s turn which could not be defined as the last word.
7 2. Interruption definition: (Jennifer Coates) Interruptions break the symmetry of the conversational model: the interruption prevents the first speaker from finishing his/her turn, at the same time gaining a turn for oneself (second speaker).
8 Rules for Turn-taking: (Sacks, Schegloff, Jefferson, 1974) current speaker selects next speakernext speaker self-selectscurrent speaker continues
9 Violation of the turn-taking model (Jennifer Coates) grabbing the floorhogging the floor (taking the floor although other speaker was selected)not responding (silence)
10 Definitions of „overlap“ Bennett (1981) : Overlap is when two voices are going on at the same time.
11 Definitions of „overlap“ West / Zimmerman (1975/1983) : An overlap is an instance of simultaneous speech where a speaker other than the current speaker begins to speak at, or very close to a possible TRP in a current speaker´s utterance. It is this proximity to a legitimate point of speaker alternation that leads to distinguish overlaps from interruptions.
12 Definitions of „overlap“ Coates (2003) : instances of slight over-anticipation by the next speaker.Over-anticipation does not necessarily force the first speaker to finish his / her turn.
13 Interruption vs. Overlap (Tannen 1990) High-involvement styleHigh-considerateness style
14 Interruption vs. Overlap (Tannen 1990) High-involvement style:- little / no pausesupportive tags (hms, yes, ok.)overlapping questionsfast-paced latching (elaborating on a topic)conversation is not disruptedshows interest and rapport
15 Interruption vs. Overlap (Tannen 1990) High-considerateness style :favour longer pausesaverse to overlapsawait TRPno sudden topic shifts
16 Conclusion different conversational styles subculture, culture, individual style and predispositionsituationhierarchy / relationship of the speakers