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URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

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Presentation on theme: "URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS"— Presentation transcript:

1 URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
By Dr Dave Maharajh MD

2 Bacteria Preparing to Attack

3 URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
MISURY

4 URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
MISURY

5 MISURY

6 MISURY

7 PREGNANCY

8 CLASSIFICATIONS UPPER URINARY TRACT Complicated and Uncomplicated
LOWER URINARY TRACT COMBINED UPPER AND LOWER TRACTS

9 Epidiemiology Adults: F>M 18-60 yrs (11%/yr)
Children: F>M 5-Puberty Approx % of Adult Women report a urinary tract infection during lifetime Adult Female: 3UTI/yr. > refer and inv. Adult Male: 1 infection. Refer and inv. Children: M(1) and F(>3 refer and inv.) Children: F>M except neonates < 5yrs refer

10 WHEN LENGTH MATTERS

11 MECHANISMS OF ACTION Direct Contamination:invasive procedures
Migration Hematogenous ( TB and Staph. ) Ascending Infection Foreign Bodies ( Catheters and others) Coexisting Conditions Fistulas, Crohn’s/UC, Diverticular disease IBS, DM, Neurogenic bladder, Calculi. Immunosuppression, Nonsecretors of blood group substances (Toll-like receptors (TLR-1 and TLR-4> Chemokines CXCL8

12 URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS CLINICAL VARIATIONS

13 Clinical Symptoms Upper Tract:
Flank Pain, Fever, Chills, nausea/vomitting Lower Tract: Frequency, Urgency, Dysuria, Hematuria, Odour, Cloudy urine, Suprapubic pain, Sense of incomplete emptying. Constitutional symptoms: Malaiase, lack of energy and appetitite, confusion.

14 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
Vulvovaginitis ( Yeast, Trichomonas etc) Urethritis ( Chlamydia, GC) STD’s Sterile Pyuria Postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis

15 LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS
Urinalysis: Urine dipstick MSU Urine Culture and Sensitivity Catheterized urine Suprapubic aspirate Nephrostomy tube collection

16 DIAGNOSTICS Urine dipstick: RBC/ WBC and Nitrites
Usually detects >10/`5 colony/ml Beware of sterile pyuria, age of sticks Evaluate with clinical scenario Must do MSU or centrifuged urine Treat and await culture/sensitivity Repeat MSU not dipstick after Rx.

17 DIAGNOSTICS MSU: Colony count > 10`5 or 10`8
Culture and Sensitivity to follow Contamination (Multiple bact. Identified) Fungi and Chlamydia need different media, suspect if neg. culture and symptomatic

18 Diagnostics Radiological Investigations:
Ultrasound ( Kidney and Bladder) CT Scan ( Abd/Pelvis) VCUG MRI Non Radiological: Cystoscopy Urodynamics and Uroflow

19 ORGANISMS COMMONLY FOUND
E. Coli >70% Klebsiella Pneumoniae Proteus Mirabilis Enterococcus Fecalis Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Enterobactae

20 URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS Non Antimicrobial Therapies
Personal Hygiene Avoid Bubble Baths and Hot Tubs Beware of Spermicide Use Cranberry Juice Increased daily Fluid Intakes Development of a Vaccine

21 Strategies to Prevent UTI
Simple measures Increase Fluid intake Void before and after intercourse Personal Hygiene (wipe front to back) Avoid feminine hygiene sprays Take showers instead of baths Cranberries / Juice Assess voiding pattern Cranberries

22 TREATMENT Uncomplicated UTI
Young Woman first episode Single dose Young Male first episode Treat , investigate and refer TMP-SMZ 320/1600mg, 2 double strength tabs Amoxicillin 3gm Cephaloridine 2gm Gentamycin 5mg/kg Doxycycline 300mg Quinolones

23 TREATMENT Uncomplicated UTI
Young woman first episode Short course 3-5days 10-14 days Treat according to sensitivity Repeat urine culture after treatment TMP-SMZ Nitrofurantoin/ Macrobid Ciprofloxacin Noroxin Amoxil Quinolones

24 TREATMENT COMPLICATED UTI
Specific Pharmacotherapy Investigate with Radiology Refer to appropriate specialty Consider low dose prophylaxis while awaiting referral and diagnostics Admit patient if not responding to treatment and refer

25 Common Scenarios Young female with recurrent UTI and relapses after treatments >3 Simple measures as discussed Do U/S kidney and bladder with PVR May need VCUG Refer to Specialty Consider low dose prophylaxis

26 COMMON SCENARIOS Young Females (Pediatric age group)
Avoid excessive baths Treat and eliminate constipation Encourage frequent voids Proper Potty Training Proper Genital Hygeine Recurrent UTI (Investigate and refer) U/S, VCUG

27 Common Scenarios Postmenopausal woman with recurrent UTI.
Simple measures as discussed Treat constipation and avoid baths Use Premarin/ estrogen cream locally Consider low dose prophylaxis Do U/S kidney and Bladder with PVR Refer to Specialty

28 Common Scenarios Chronic indwelling catheters
No need for Rx. Unless symptomatic Change catheter every 4-6 weeks Use of Silastic catheters less infection Local hygiene to the catheter and Urethral meatus helpful Irrigation of the Catheter helpful in certain situations. ( Mucus production and sediments)

29 Common Scenarios Pregnancy
Treat all Asymptomatic Bacteruria with the appropriate antibiotic for trimester of Pregnancy Always do and U/S Kidney and bladder with PVR Refer to specialty if needed

30 Common Scenarios Young and Old Males
Treat with appropriate antibiotics Always do diagnostic Imaging (U/S or CT) Examine Genitalia and Prostate Refer to Specialty

31 Common Scenarios Patients with Neurogenic Bladders
Do appropriate Imaging Personal Hygiene Techniques of Clean Intermittent Catherizations) Treat with culture sensitive antibiotics Refer to Specialty as needed Beware Autonomic dysreflexia

32 References Update in Adult Urinary Tract Infection
Lindsay Nicolle Curr. Infect. Dis.Rep (2011) 13: Dept. Of Internal Medicine and Medical Microbiology . U. Of Manitoba An Update on Uncomplictaed UTI in Women Current Opinion in Urology : Florian. M. Wagenlehner

33 Urinary Tract Infections
QUESTIONS

34 Structural and functional abnormalities of the genitourinary tract associated with complicated urinary infection ObstructionUreteric or urethral stricturesTumours of the urinary tractUrolithiasisProstatic hypertrophyDiverticulaePelvicalyceal obstructionRenal cystsCongenital abnormalitiesInstrumentationIndwelling urethral catheterIntermittent catheterizationUreteric stentNephrostomy tubeUrological proceduresImpaired voidingNeurogenic bladderCystoceleVesicoureteral refluxIleal conduitMetabolic abnormalitiesNephrocalcinosisMedullary sponge kidneyRenal failureImmunocompromisedRenal transplant

35

36 The diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infection in patients without indwelling urological devices should be considered only when localizing genitourinary signs or symptoms are present (AII). For patients with indwelling urological devices, systemic symptoms, such as fever in the absence of localizing genitourinary signs and symptoms, may be consistent with symptomatic urinary tract infection (AII). A urine specimen should be obtained for culture and susceptibility testing before institution of antimicrobial therapy for every episode of complicated urinary tract infection (AI). A single urine specimen with a quantitative count of at least 108 cfu/L (at least 105 cfu/mL) is consistent with urinary infection in symptomatic subjects (AII). A quantitative count of at least 108 cfu/L (at least 105 cfu/mL) on two consecutive specimens is the appropriate diagnostic criteria to identify asymptomatic bacteriuria in women (BII). Any quantitative count of organisms is consistent with bacteriuria for individuals with urine specimens obtained by bladder catheterization (AII).


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