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1 Java threads: synchronization. 2 Thread states 1.New: created with the new operator (not yet started) 2.Runnable: either running or ready to run 3.Blocked:

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Presentation on theme: "1 Java threads: synchronization. 2 Thread states 1.New: created with the new operator (not yet started) 2.Runnable: either running or ready to run 3.Blocked:"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Java threads: synchronization

2 2 Thread states 1.New: created with the new operator (not yet started) 2.Runnable: either running or ready to run 3.Blocked: deactivated to wait for something 4.Dead: has executed its run method to completion, or terminated by an uncaught exception a started thread is executed in its own run-time context consisting of: program counter, call stack, and some working memory (registers, cache)

3 3 Thread states

4 4 Thread states (cont.) don't confuse the interface java.lang.Runnable with the state Runnable "running" is not a separate state within Runnable, but Thread.currentThread () // static method identifies the current thread object (for itself) thread.isAlive () tells if the thread has been started (is not New) and not yet Dead –you cannot directly ask whether an alive thread is Runnable or Blocked –you cannot directly ask whether a non-alive thread is still New or already Dead

5 5 Entering the Blocked state A thread enters the blocked state when: 1.the thread goes to sleep by calling the sleep method 2.the thread calls an operation that blocks until IO operations are complete 3.the thread tries to acquire a lock that is currently held by another thread (mutual exclusion) 4.the thread waits for a condition

6 6 Transition from Blocked to Runnable A blocked thread moves into the Runnable state when 1.if in sleep, the specified number of milliseconds have been expired 2.if waiting for the completion of an IO operation, the IO operation have finished 3.if waiting for a lock that was owned by another thread, the other thread have released its ownership of the lock 4.if waits for a condition, another thread signals that the condition (may) have changed –additionally, can wait for a lock or a condition with a timeout

7 7 Java Memory Model computers can temporarily hold memory values in registers or local memory caches, and the compiler can reorder instructions to optimize throughput –without synchronization, threads (interleaved or parallel) may see out-of-date and/or out-of-order values for the same memory locations locks always ensure that all calculated results are visible to other threads (flushing of caches, etc.) alternatively, you can declare a flag field as volatile: private volatile boolean done;.. public boolean isDone () { return done; } a write to a volatile variable synchronizes with all subsequent reads of that same variable (all reads and writes are atomic, even for long and double)

8 8 Mutual exclusion from critical code basic way to protecting a shared code block: myLock.lock (); // a ReentrantLock object try { critical section } finally { myLock.unlock (); } only one thread at a time can enter the critical section (identified and protected by this particular lock) any other threads calling on this lock, are blocked until the first thread unlocks the finally clause makes sure the lock is unlocked even if an exception is thrown

9 9 Fairness you can specify that you want a fair locking policy: Lock fairLock = new ReentrantLock (true); a fair lock favors the thread that has been waiting for the longest time by default, locks are not required to be fair –for implementation reasons fair locks can be much slower than regular locks –anyway, you have no guarantee that the thread scheduler provided by the plarform is fair so if the thread scheduler neglects a thread, it may not get the chance to be treated fairly by the lock

10 10 Condition objects a lock protects sections of code, allowing only one thread to execute the code at a time –a lock manages threads that are trying to enter a protected code segment a lock can have one or more associated condition objects –each condition object manages threads that have entered a protected code section but that cannot proceed for some reason (usually, lack of data / resource)

11 11 Condition objects (cont.) use a condition object to manage threads that have acquired a lock but cannot proceed with useful work Condition cond = lock.newCondition ();.. lock.lock (); try { while (!(ok to proceed)) // try until succeeds cond.await (); // data available: do something useful } finally { lock.unlock (); } must itself check that the condition is (still) valid

12 12 Condition objects (cont.) some other thread must call the signalAll method to wake up any waiting threads change some item used in condition test.. cond.signalAll (); // or rarely: signal () the condition wait must always be done in a loop while (! condition) cond.await (); multiple threads may compete to acquire the lock the first one can use up resources, and so others must then enter back to the blocked state to wait additionally, a "spurious wakeup" (without signal) is permitted to occur (depending on the OS)

13 13 Keyword "synchronized" since version 1.0, every object has an implicit lock to be used in so-called monitor methods: public synchronized void method () { body } this is the equivalent of the following pseudocode: public void method () { // use explicit lock this.implicitLock.lock (); // pseudocode try { body } finally { this.implicitLock.unlock(); }

14 14 Keyword synchronized (cont.) the monitor lock also has a single implicit associated condition with the following operations –wait adds a thread to its set of waiting threads –notifyAll unblocks all waiting threads to compete for access these correspond to the following lock calls –implicitCondition.await (); // pseudocode –implicitCondition.signalAll (); the wait and notifyAll methods are final methods in Object –so the Condition methods had to be renamed differently: await and signalAll

15 15 Synchronized code blocks an implicit lock can be acquired also by entering a code block synchronized by an object lock: synchronized (obj) { // any object critical section // implicit lock and unlock } the lock is reentrant: if a thread has acquired the lock, it can acquire it again (increments a count) similarly, a monitor method can call other monitor methods with the same implicit lock without waiting you can declare a static monitor method: it uses the the associated class object ("X.class") as its lock

16 16 Limitations of implicit locks and conditions you cannot interrupt a thread that is waiting to acquire a lock you cannot specify a timeout when trying to acquire a lock having only one single condition per lock can be inefficient –cannot separate buffer empty (cannot take) vs. buffer full (cannot put) conditions the virtual machine locking primitives do not map well to the most efficient locking mechanisms available in modern hardware

17 17 Lock testing and timeouts can be cautious about acquiring a lock: if (myLock.tryLock ()) { // now the thread owns the lock try { do something } finally { myLock.unlock (); } } else { do something else } can call tryLock with a timeout parameter: if (myLock.tryLock(10,TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS))... –TimeUnit can be: SECONDS, MILLISECONDS, MICROSECONDS, or NANOSECONDS.

18 18 Lock testing and timeouts (cont.) if you call tryLock with a timeout, then it can throw InterruptedException when interrupted –can try to break up deadlocks and such –the lockInterruptibly method has the same meaning as tryLock with an infinite timeout can also supply a timeout for a condition wait; myCondition.await (10, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)); –returns if another thread has called signalAll - or if the given timeout has elapsed –await methods throw an InterruptedException if the thread is interrupted (but awaitUninterruptibly)

19 19 Summary of synchronization operations synchronized (lock) {.. use shared data } synchronized void method () {.. use shared data } lock.lock () {.. } finally { lock.unlock (); } // explicit waiting for a condition to proceed: try {.. while (!(cannot proceed)) wait ();.. // means: this.wait (); } catch (InterruptedException e) {.. either anyObject.wait (); or condition.await (); either anyObject.notifyAll (); or condition.signalAll ();

20 20 Recommendations is best to use neither lock/condition nor the old monitor methods/code blocks ("synchronized") in many situations, better to use mechanisms of the java.util.concurrent package that do all the locking and synchronization for you for example, a blocking queue can synchronize threads that work on a common pipeline 2.if the monitor methods work for your situation, prefer using them: less code to write and so less room for error 3.use explicit locks/conditions only if you need the additional power of these constructs

21 21 java.util.concurrent: thread management tools ReentrantReadWriteLock provides shared access for readers, and exclusive access for a writer BlockingQueue can cause a thread to block when trying to add to a full queue or trying to remove from empty one –ConcurrentLinkedQueue and ArrayBlockingQueue provide optionally-bounded/bounded thread-safe queues interface ConcurrentMap implemented efficiently by –ConcurrentHashMap and ConcurrentSkipListMap CopyOnWriteArrayList and CopyOnWriteArraySet provide thread-safe collections (reads outnumber mutations) Callable plus Future can return and hold the result of an asynchronous computation (can test, time-out, and cancel) you can give a Runnable to a thread pool, and one of its idle threads executes it; afterwards, that thread can serve again synchronizers: CyclicBarrier, CountDownLatch, Exchanger, SynchronousQueue, and Semaphore AtomicInteger, AtomicLong, AtomicReference, etc.: lock-free thread-safe programming on single variables

22 22 Atomic variables support lock-free thread-safe programming on single variables (objects) –extends the notion of volatile: provide atomic and synchronized access to single values (visibility!) enable implementations to use efficient atomic machine instructions that available on processors (but no guarantees: might entail internal locking..) AtomicLong seqNo = new AtomicLong (0);.. long next () { return seqNo.getAndAdd(1); } // atomic –may not work when state involves invariants.. atomic variables do not replace Integer, Long, etc. –do not provide hashCode or compareTo (since expected to change, no good as Map keys)

23 23 A producer-consumer solution class IntProducer implements Runnable { private BlockingQueue queue; public IntProducer (BlockingQueue q) { queue = q; new Thread (this).start (); } public void run () { try { // "put" may block for (int x = 0; x < 100; x++) { Thread.sleep (delay);.. queue.put (x); } } catch (InterruptedException e) { } }

24 24 A producer-consumer solution (cont.) class IntConsumer implements Runnable { private BlockingQueue queue; public IntConsumer (BlockingQueue q) { queue = q; new Thread (this).start (); } public void run () { try { // "take" may block while (true) { int value = queue.take ();.. } } catch (InterruptedException ex) { } } }.. BlockingQueue q = new ArrayBlockingQueue (10); // capacity

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