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1 Vocabulary and Terminology Standards Marjorie M.K.Hlava President Access Innovations, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Vocabulary and Terminology Standards Marjorie M.K.Hlava President Access Innovations, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Vocabulary and Terminology Standards Marjorie M.K.Hlava President Access Innovations, Inc.

2 2 What are they for? Accuracy Disambiguation Recall Precision Relevance Removing Noise Increasing Hits

3 3 Vocabulary Control Define Scope of term (meaning) Equivalence between synonyms –And Quasi Synonyms –Single concept –Cars / Automobiles Distinguish homographs –Mercury – –Planet, metal, myth, car

4 4 Nice to have Equivalence – synonyms - Rogets Associative – related terms Hierarchies – taxonomy view History – development of the term Notes – help the user Notation – different way to sort Display – how to show the terms

5 5 Where do they come from? ANSI / NISO –National Information Standards Organization ISO –International Standards Organization TC 46 TC 37 W3C –World Wide Web Consortium US OMB IFLA

6 6 Effectiveness of Indexing Indexing as a means for identifying and retrieving content objects depends upon a well constructed indexing language Improves precision by defining the scope of the terms Improves recall by allowing different terms for the same concept

7 7 Vocabulary Control Eliminate ambiguity Control synonyms – insure a term has only one meaning Establish relationships Test and validate terms Gather the linguistic relationships in one place

8 8 Facets Bottom up approach to organization Find the parts of the knowledge Useful in –Developing areas –Interdisciplinary fields –Multiple hierarchies –Where location of CO is not important –Where several groups have ownership of the whole…

9 9 Facets Multiple attributes for a single object –Topic By composition By use –Format –Audience –Intellectual level Could be fields, Could be facets

10 10 Interoperability Same content – different domains Different vocabulary – same domain Degree of specificity / granularity Handling of synonyms Search methodology –Z39.50 –Pre coordinated –Post coordinated Literary warrant established in vocab used Intended purpose (academic vs lay public)

11 11 Interoperability Merging vocabularies Merging databases Indexing using single vocab Federated searching Mapping or crosswalks –Decide on master vocab Authority records

12 12 Z – Controlled Vocabularies - What’s new? Interoperability Synonym Rings Facet Analysis Taxonomy Semantic Relationships Glossary Web Format Changes in terminology

13 13 Other methods - Zeng Derivation Modeling Translation and Adaptation Satellite controlled vocabularies Node or leaf linking

14 14 Other methods Section 10.8 Switching Linking Through a Temporary Union List Linking Through Controlled Vocabulary Servers

15 15 Semantic Network Use to cluster terms from many sources Create an underlying structure for all to map to Group terms to conceptual scheme Define types of concepts Define types of relationships Generate synonym rings for retrieval

16 16 Semantic network for clustered terms from a combined vocabulary – UMLS portion

17 17 Semantic network showing types of relationships among concepts - UMLS

18 18 Lexical Database Terms from many vocabularies Create clusters of concepts Allow many kinds of relationships –IsA, HasA, synonyms, hierarchical, etc

19 19 Multiple senses for the same noun in a lexical database bridge, span -- (a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such as a river or canal or railway etc.) bridge, bridge circuit -- (a circuit consisting of two branches (4 arms arranged in a diamond configuration) across which a meter is connected) bridge -- (something resembling a bridge in form or function; "his letters provided a bridge across the centuries") bridge -- (the hard ridge that forms the upper part of the nose; "her glasses left marks on the bridge of her nose") bridge -- (any of various card games based on whist for four players) bridge -- (a wooden support that holds the strings up) bridge, bridgework -- (a denture anchored to teeth on either side of missing teeth) bridge, nosepiece -- (the link between two lenses; rests on nose) bridge, bridge deck -- (an upper deck where a ship is steered and the captain stands)

20 20 ISO TC 46 – SC 6 or 9 Controlled vocabulary and other information standards ISO 5127 – Information and Documentation – Vocabulary ISO Guidelines for the establishment and development of monolingual thesauri = BS 5723:1987 ISO Guidelines for the establishment and development of multilingual thesauri = BS 6723:1985 NEW - BSA Parts 1 – 4 Stella Dexter Clarke

21 21 British Standards - BS 8723 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval – Guide Part 1: General Part 2: Thesauri Part 3: Vocabularies other than thesauri Part 4: Interoperability between vocabularies Part 5: Interoperability with applications

22 22 ISO TC 37 Scope of ISO TC 37: Standardization of principles, methods and applications relating to terminology and other language resources. TC 37/SC 1 - Principles and methods TC 37/SC 2 - Terminography and lexicography TC 37/SC 3 - Computer applications for terminology TC 37/SC 4 - Language resource management

23 23 Sample Standards Principles of concept-oriented terminology and data categories: ISO 704:2000 Terminology work - Principles and methods ISO 860:1996 Terminology work - Harmonization of concepts and terms ISO :2000 Terminology work - Vocabulary - Part 1: Theory and application ISO :2000 Terminology work - Vocabulary - Part 2: Computer applications ISO 10241:1992 Preparation and layout of international terminology standards ISO 12200:1999 Computer applications in terminology - Machine-readable terminology interchange format (MARTIF) - Negotiated interchange ISO 12616:2002 Translation-oriented terminography ISO/TR 12618:1994 Computer aids in terminology - Creation and use of terminological databases and text corpora ISO 12620:1999 Computer applications in terminology - Data categories used to create glossaries

24 24 W3C OWL – Web Ontology Language RDF – Resource Description Format Topic Maps SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization Systems Which community to serve? Build on the current standard Might make this link next

25 25 Other things to watch Other W3C and ISO areas Support groups –Blogs –Communities of Practice SIMILE Web 2.0 activities WSDL – Web Services Digital Library

26 26 Other Relevant ISO & W3C Standards For translation, terminology and applied linguists go to : #Ontology Markup Languages Metadata Resources Character Coding Access Protocols and Interoperability Content Creation, Manipulation, and Maintenance Authoring Standards Text and Content Markup Translation Standards Terminology and Lexicography Standards ISO TC 37 Standards Terminology Interchange Standards Controlled Language Standards Taxonomy and Ontology Standards Corpus Management Standards Locale-Related Standards

27 27 SIMILE  Semantic Interoperability of Metadata and Information in unLike Environments  Forming a data reference for open source taxonomies

28 28 Web Services – Web 2.0 Acts as middleware Allows migration from legacy systems Uses HTTP remote procedure calls Allows interaction between distributed, loose coupled and reusable software components Openness: –Machine readable description available –WSDL – Web Services Digital Library –accessible via public (UDDI-) Registries Will help integrate “taxonomies into web presentations of data

29 29 Summary Standards for Vocabulary now come from many places. There are 19 main ones to watch If you have a current standard compliant thesaurus you can probably implement it in the Web 2.0 arena Vocabulary control improves search –Precision and accuracy –Recall and relevance

30 30 Thank you for your time Marjorie M.K. Hlava President Access Innovations / Data Harmony

31 31 : xrefer Research Mapping

32 32 Data Harmony View - VxInsight

33 33 Scenario: Web Services based Infrastructure for Digital Libraries UDDI- Registry Existing web services Newsservice Scientific database OAI based document harvester XML/SOAP Network- node 1 XML/SOAP WSDL- descriptions Network- node 2 XML/SOAP Network- node n XML/SOAP

34 34 DL-Services (logical view) Service (user‘s perspective) Types of services Types of material Metamodel Functionality model and implementation Service Provision (Web-Service)

35 35 Framework (logical view) XML-Repository Metamodel of Services Support Services Service > WSDL-Service Support Generator Service- Localization Dispatcher Webserver (Cocoon2) Java-classes (framework application) Service creation and assembly Transaction- management Data processed by Services

36 36 For services and software Contact Marjorie Hlava Jay Ven Eman Access Innovations, Inc Data Harmony –Thesaurus Master, MAI, XIS –Auto indexing and content Management


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