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Consonants The stops and continuants Chapter five
Voiced and voiceless consonants You have vibration at your throat while producing voiced consonants. Voiceless: /p/, /t/, /k/,/f/, /s/, /θ/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, /h/ Voiced: /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, /ð/, /ʒ/, /dʒ/
1- The stop consonants /p/, /b/ Stop the airflow by holding your lips together. Then part the lips quickly to release the airflow with sudden pressure. /t/,/d/ Place your tongue tip on the alveolar ridge to stop the airflow. Then lower the tip sharply to release the airflow /k/,/g/ Raise the back of your tongue against the palate to stop the airflow. Drop the tongue quickly to release the airflow with sudden pressure.
Aspiration with the stops At the beginning of words, stop consonants are released with a slight burst of air. The sound of air produced is called aspiration. ten-den pin- bin come-gum At the end of words stop consonants are not aspirated. They are released softly At add cap cab back bag Page 5.6
Middle stop consonant is aspirated when it begins a stressed syllable Appear-upper occur-acre Upon-open become-backup Practice pages
Linking: consonants with consonants In English speech, identical consonants between words are produced as one. Good day what time? Take care To link different stop consonants hold the airflow on the first one and release it on the second. Big time lap top neck tie Page: 5.11
The suffix –ed The suffix –ed is pronounced /t/ after voiceless consonants and /d/ after voiced consonants. Backed bagged roped robed Page 5.11 Page 5.17 (very important)
2- Continuant consonants /θ/, /ð/ The tongue is flattened. Raise the sides against the upper side teeth. Place the tongue tip below the upper front teeth. The airflow must be continuous. /θ/ thank, thick, bath /ð/ this, that, those Pages:
Sound clusters When /θ/ follows /n/, place the tongue tip for /n/ in the same place as /θ/. With the tongue tip between the upper and the lower teeth. 7 th, 9 th, 10 th, 11 th.
2- Continuant consonants /f/,/v/ Place the bottom lip under the front upper teeth, allowing a passage for a continuous airflow. Face- vase leaf-leave safe-save
Suffix –s -s is voiceless after /f/, and it is voiced after /v/ Proofs- proves safes- saves waifs-waves Page: 5.27