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SawingBasics When making blade recommendations, there are a few questions we need to answer:  What Blade Do We Use?  What Tooth Pitch Do We Use? 

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Presentation on theme: "SawingBasics When making blade recommendations, there are a few questions we need to answer:  What Blade Do We Use?  What Tooth Pitch Do We Use? "— Presentation transcript:

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2 SawingBasics

3 When making blade recommendations, there are a few questions we need to answer:  What Blade Do We Use?  What Tooth Pitch Do We Use?  What Blade Speed Should We Use?  What Feed Rate Should We Use?  The Relationship Between Feed & Speed  - The Relationship Between Feed & Speed  Why Do We Need A Cutting Fluid?  Why Do We Need Blade Break-In?

4 What Blade Do We Use? Items That Influence Selection Machine Type - Low cost, low performance machines will not allow a band saw blade to function optimally for low performance machines, select blades that can take chatter or vibrationfor low performance machines, select blades that can take chatter or vibration the better the feed system on a machine, the higher the blade quality that can be used effectivelythe better the feed system on a machine, the higher the blade quality that can be used effectively Production Rate - The higher the number of cuts per hour or the longer the run time the better the quality of the blade will need to be Cost Per Cut - to lower the cost per cut, move to a better quality blade

5 What Blade Do We Use? Items That Influence Selection Material Machinability - Alloy type, hardness and shape all affect material machinability The higher the alloy, the lower the machinability ratingThe higher the alloy, the lower the machinability rating The higher the material hardness, the lower the machinability ratingThe higher the material hardness, the lower the machinability rating Complex material shapes will lower the machinability ratingComplex material shapes will lower the machinability rating Abrasiveness - Abrasive material or coatings will reduce the life of a band saw blade – consider carbide tipped blades or carbide grit edge blades Machinability is generally rated from 0 to 100% (SAE1112, rated at 100%, is considered free cutting)

6 What Blade Do We Use? Carbon - Economical cutting of easy-to-machine ferrous or non- ferrous metals and wood.Duratec FB- Economical cutting of easy-to-machine ferrous or non- ferrous metals and wood. - Greater rigidity than Duratec FB for more accurate, straighter cuts. Economical production cutting.Duratec PH - Greater rigidity than Duratec FB for more accurate, straighter cuts. Economical production cutting.BiMetal – Triple tempered M-42 edge with 8% cobalt bonded to a fatigue resistant alloy backing that features up to a 12 degree positive rake This allows for easier penetration, faster, straighter cuts and improved surface finish. For high production cutting of nickel based and non-ferrous alloys in solids, tubing, structurals and bundles.Intenss PRO – Triple tempered M-42 edge with 8% cobalt bonded to a fatigue resistant alloy backing that features up to a 12 degree positive rake This allows for easier penetration, faster, straighter cuts and improved surface finish. For high production cutting of nickel based and non-ferrous alloys in solids, tubing, structurals and bundles. - Same construction as our Intenss PRO blade but with varying tooth heights. This creates a surging cutting action to aid in penetration of large sections of exotic and nickel-based alloys and high hardness steels.Intenss PRO VTH - Same construction as our Intenss PRO blade but with varying tooth heights. This creates a surging cutting action to aid in penetration of large sections of exotic and nickel-based alloys and high hardness steels. set tooth design minimizes pinching when cutting structurals and bundles. Less tooth breakage and longer blade life.Versatix- Excellent general purpose blade for all machines. Special set tooth design minimizes pinching when cutting structurals and bundles. Less tooth breakage and longer blade life. - Bi-Metal Unique construction, available in 1/4” thru 1/2” widths, constant and variable pitches. For general purpose cutting of tool, die and mold steels, stainless steels, abrasive exotic alloys, structurals, tubing and solids.Die Pro - Bi-Metal Unique construction, available in 1/4” thru 1/2” widths, constant and variable pitches. For general purpose cutting of tool, die and mold steels, stainless steels, abrasive exotic alloys, structurals, tubing and solids.

7 What Blade Do We Use? Carbide Tipped - Features a carbide cylinder, selected for it’s toughness, shock and wear resistance, providing faster, smoother cutting on a variety of abrasive materials. Aluminum Castings, Fiberglass, Masonite, Plastics, Composites, and Abrasive Wood.Advanz FS - Features a carbide cylinder, selected for it’s toughness, shock and wear resistance, providing faster, smoother cutting on a variety of abrasive materials. Aluminum Castings, Fiberglass, Masonite, Plastics, Composites, and Abrasive Wood. – Features Micro-grain Carbide for cutting High-Alloy metals, Difficult to machine steels, Titanuim, Stainless Steel, Inconel and for high production applications.Advanz TS – Features Micro-grain Carbide for cutting High-Alloy metals, Difficult to machine steels, Titanuim, Stainless Steel, Inconel and for high production applications. Tungsten Carbide grit bonded to an alloy backing. Easily cuts fiber reinforces plastics, Graphite composites, carbon, Glass, Steel belted tires and case hardened steels.Advanz CG - Tungsten Carbide grit bonded to an alloy backing. Easily cuts fiber reinforces plastics, Graphite composites, carbon, Glass, Steel belted tires and case hardened steels. If Carbide Grit won’t cut it, Diamond Grit is recommended.Advanz DG - If Carbide Grit won’t cut it, Diamond Grit is recommended.

8 What Tooth Pitch Do We Use? Number Of Teeth In The Cut Minimum - 3 teeth in the cut If there are too few teeth in the cut, the teeth can straddle the workpiece, which can cause tooth strippage If there are too few teeth in the cut, the teeth can straddle the workpiece, which can cause tooth strippage Maximum - 24 teeth in the cut too many teeth in the cut may cause the gullets to “overload”, because there is not enough gullet capacity to hold all the chips - this can cause blade bouncing and tooth strippage too many teeth in the cut may cause the gullets to “overload”, because there is not enough gullet capacity to hold all the chips - this can cause blade bouncing and tooth strippage The “Optimum” is 6 to 12 teeth in cut at any time

9 What Tooth Pitch Do We Use? Number Of Teeth In The Cut Conditions that influence pitch selection: Conditions that influence pitch selection: soft materials require fewer teeth and more gullet capacitysoft materials require fewer teeth and more gullet capacity hard materials require more teeth to share in the work and less gullet areahard materials require more teeth to share in the work and less gullet area machine capabilities - constant feed machines can use a coarser pitch, whereas gravity feed machines will require a finer pitchmachine capabilities - constant feed machines can use a coarser pitch, whereas gravity feed machines will require a finer pitch production vs. finish or blade lifeproduction vs. finish or blade life for production cutting, run on the coarse end of the spectrum for production cutting, run on the coarse end of the spectrum for good cut finish, run on the fine end of the spectrum for good cut finish, run on the fine end of the spectrum for blade life, run in the middle to the fine end of the spectrum for blade life, run in the middle to the fine end of the spectrum

10 1112 Carbon Soft 3 Teeth D-2, Die Steels Hard 18 Teeth 718 Inconel Tough 12 Teeth What Tooth Pitch Do We Use? Optimizing Tooth Pitch A General Rule of Thumb... Soft Materials – use fewer teeth in the cut – in the 3 to 6 tooth range Aluminum, Copper, Bronze, Carbon SteelsAluminum, Copper, Bronze, Carbon Steels Hard Materials – use more teeth in the cut – in the 18 to 24 tooth range D-2, Die Steels, Stainless SteelsD-2, Die Steels, Stainless Steels Tough Materials – use a moderate amount of teeth in the cut – in the 12 to 18 tooth range Inconel, Hastalloy, Waspalloy, MonelInconel, Hastalloy, Waspalloy, Monel

11 What Tooth Pitch Do We Use? Optimizing Tooth Pitch To Determine the Number of Teeth in a Cut with Variable Pitch Band Saw Blades, we need to take the Average of the Pitch: PitchAverage Pitch3 1/2 TPI Pitch 5 TPI Pitch6 1/2 TPI Pitch 8 TPI Pitch 12 TPI Pitch 12 TPI Example: Calculate the Number of Teeth in the Cut in 4" Bar Stock, using a 3-4 Variable Pitch Blade Bar Stock Size x Avg TPI = # of Teeth in the Cut (4 x 3.5 = 14) Bar Stock Size x Avg TPI = # of Teeth in the Cut (4 x 3.5 = 14) a 2-3 Variable Pitch blade would have 10 teeth in the cut a 2-3 Variable Pitch blade would have 10 teeth in the cut a 4-6 Variable Pitch blade would have 20 teeth in the cut a 4-6 Variable Pitch blade would have 20 teeth in the cut a 6-10 Variable Pitch blade would have 32 teeth in the cut a 6-10 Variable Pitch blade would have 32 teeth in the cut

12 Items That Influence Selection What Blade Speed Should We Use? Items That Influence Selection Material Machinability Rating - The lower the rating %, the slower the band speed will need to be Blade Selection - The cutting edge of the blade will govern the speed the blade can run at (Carbon = Slowest Cutting, Carbide = Fastest Cutting) Cutting Noise / Vibration - Cutting noise or vibration is a killer to a cutting edge - if either is present, the speed must be decreased Coolant / Cutting Fluid - If the coolant is adequate, use the standard cutting chart speeds. When cutting dry, reduce the speed by 40-50% Cutting Speed Terminology

13 What Blade Speed Should We Use? Items That Influence Selection Remember, when considering blade speed, consider the saw... if the saw has limited or no ability to adjust speed, you must work with what you have! A General Rule of Thumb – 200 – 300 Hard Materials – set the blade speed for 100 S.F.P.M. to start... Hard Materials – set the blade speed for 100 S.F.P.M. to start... Medium Materials – set the blade speed for 200 S.F.P.M. to start... Medium Materials – set the blade speed for 200 S.F.P.M. to start... Soft Materials – set the blade speed for 300 S.F.P.M. to start... Soft Materials – set the blade speed for 300 S.F.P.M. to start Then adjust the speed as needed to get the required result!... Then adjust the speed as needed to get the required result! Cutting Speed Terminology

14 Items That Influence Selection What Feed Rate Should We Use? Items That Influence Selection Material Machinability Rating - The lower the rating %, the slower the cutting rate will need to be. Blade Selection - The cutting edge of the blade will govern the rate the blade can cut at (Carbon = Slowest Cutting, Carbide = Fastest Cutting) Cutting Noise / Vibration - Cutting noise or vibration are killers to a cutting edge - if present, the blade speed must be decreased or feed rate must be increased Coolant / Cutting Fluid - If the coolant is adequate, use the standard cutting chart rates. When cutting dry, reduce the feed by 50 to 75% Cutting Rate Terminology

15 Items That Influence Selection What Feed Rate Should We Use? Items That Influence Selection Chip Formations: Light chips cause short blade life Light chips cause short blade life heat from rubbing, not cutting, will work-harden some materials and dull the cutting edgeheat from rubbing, not cutting, will work-harden some materials and dull the cutting edge Chips formed when the blade is cutting correctly have a bright metallic color Chips formed when the blade is cutting correctly have a bright metallic color Chips formed when the blade is over feeding have a heavy thick tan or blue color (Stainless steel will not change color) Chips formed when the blade is over feeding have a heavy thick tan or blue color (Stainless steel will not change color)

16 What’s the relationship between feed, speed & tooth pitch? The Relationship Between Feed & Speed What’s the relationship between feed, speed & tooth pitch? Speed & Feed are directly related – if you want to change the cut result, then change only one variable (speed or feed) at a time: Increasing the Work Size will decrease tooth penetration. Increasing the Work Size will decrease tooth penetration. Reducing the Tooth Pitch will increase tooth penetration. Reducing the Tooth Pitch will increase tooth penetration. Increasing the Tooth Pitch will decrease tooth penetration. Increasing the Tooth Pitch will decrease tooth penetration. Increasing the Blade Speed will decrease tooth penetration. Increasing the Blade Speed will decrease tooth penetration. Reducing the Blade Speed will increase tooth penetration. Reducing the Blade Speed will increase tooth penetration.

17 The Relationship Between Feed & Speed What’s the relationship between feed, speed & tooth pitch? Example: 1” solid work piece 100 lbs, feed pressure on the blade 100 lbs, feed pressure on the blade Blade #1 2 T.P.I. equals 50 lbs. per tooth penetration Blade #2 10 T.P.I. equals 10 lbs. per tooth penetration

18 Why Do We Need A Cutting Fluid? Lubricating the cutting edge will reduce the heat that is generated by cutting friction - too much heat in the cut is one of the main reasons for blade failure A flood of coolant helps wash the chips from the gulletsA flood of coolant helps wash the chips from the gullets Chips become work-hardened in the cutting operation Chips become work-hardened in the cutting operation If chips are dragged back through the cut a second time, they can damage teeth If chips are dragged back through the cut a second time, they can damage teeth A flood of coolant helps cool the blade's cutting edge and saw guidesA flood of coolant helps cool the blade's cutting edge and saw guides Remember, flood coolant whenever possible, and Only use coolant where chips are present – never use coolant on materials that produce powdered chips, such as gray iron.

19 Why Do We Need Blade Break-In?  New, sharp teeth are more fragile than lightly honed teeth  Break-in hones the teeth and helps make all teeth the same height  Proper break-in results in less blade strippage and longer blade life Break-in Procedure: 1. Set proper blade speed for the machinability and size of material to be cut 2. Reduce the normal feed rate by approximately 50% of the regular rate for the first few cuts or square inches. 3. Watch the chips!!! Small flakes Insufficient feedSmall flakes Insufficient feed Heavy blue chips Excessive feedHeavy blue chips Excessive feed Spring curled no color - Proper feed rateSpring curled no color - Proper feed rate --- During break-in, it is important that the band always produce chips --- AVOID VIBRATION 4. At the end of the Break in cuts, increase the feed rate to 100%

20 Why Do We Need Blade Break-In? Helpful Hints Always recheck the tension after making a few cutsAlways recheck the tension after making a few cuts Never start a blade into an old cutNever start a blade into an old cut Do not stop a blade in the cut without first stopping the feedDo not stop a blade in the cut without first stopping the feed Proper Break-in can increase blade life greatly If the user doesn’t currently break-in blades, try to encourage them to, use increased blade life as the benefitIf the user doesn’t currently break-in blades, try to encourage them to, use increased blade life as the benefit If you can get them to do any sort of break-in, even if its not to the procedure on the preceding slide, some break-in is better than no break-in at all for blade lifeIf you can get them to do any sort of break-in, even if its not to the procedure on the preceding slide, some break-in is better than no break-in at all for blade life

21 Variables That Require Attention The Right Blade for the Job The Right Blade for the Job Tooth Pitch – Number of Teeth In The Cut Tooth Pitch – Number of Teeth In The Cut Blade Speed Blade Speed Feed Rate Feed Rate Cutting Fluid Cutting Fluid Blade Break-In Blade Break-In When everything is right, a band saw blade will cut lots of good quality parts, consistently!!


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