Presentation on theme: "Ch 13 Personal Care. Skin 1.Protection 2.Temperature Regulation 3.Information Gathering What are the three functions of your skin? Largest body organ."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 13 Personal Care
Skin 1.Protection 2.Temperature Regulation 3.Information Gathering What are the three functions of your skin? Largest body organ
Your Skin How does you skin regulate body temperature? 1.Evaporation of sweat cools the skin. 2.Blood vessels expand to release internal body heat. 3.Blood vessels in skin narrow to keep warmth in your body. How does your skin protect you? protects the body from injury, infection, and water loss protects organs and tissue
Your Skin How does your skin gather information? nerves in the skin detect hot, cold, soft, hard, etc
The outermost layer of your skin Cells at this layer are dead Constantly shed this layer Keratin a protein that makes the skin tough and waterproof Melanin dark pigment that gives skin some of its color The Epidermis
tough, elastic layer of skin below the epidermis Pore tiny opening on the surface of the skin Follicle structure that hair grows from Sebaceous Gland produce an oil to keep skin soft produce sebum acid to kill bacteria The Dermis
Layers of the Skin Epidermis Dermis Fat Sweat gland Hair follicleNerve Blood vessels Sweat droplet Pore Hair Sebaceous gland
Caring for Your Skin 1.avoid damage from the sun and tanning lamps 2.monitor moles 3.nutritious diet 4.drink plenty of water How can you keep your skin healthy?
Preventing Skin Cancer Basal Cell most common type of skin cancer (90%) small dome shaped bump rarely spreads Squamous Cell usually affects older adults red bump on nose, ears, face, arms spreads faster than basal cell but not common
Melanoma least common form of skin cancer most deadly form of cancer usually form from moles Preventing Skin Cancer How to avoid skin cancer 1. Limit exposure to sun 2. Use sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher 3. Wear a hat with a brim
D iameter The diameter is greater than ¼ inch, eraser head Monitoring Moles The ABCD rule A symmetry One half of the a mole does not match the other half B order Edges are uneven, notched, or blurred C olor The color is not consistent throughout the mole
Acne How does acne form? excess oil and dead cells plug a hair follicle
a condition in which an area of skin becomes red, swollen, hot, and itchy.Eczema can be treated with medication sometimes the skin blisters and oozes. What is Eczema?
Boils Boils are swollen, painful infections of hair follicles caused by bacteria. Treating Skin Infections Cold Sores Cold sores are clusters of watery blisters caused by a virus.
Warts hardened growths on the skin that are also caused by a virus Ringworm fungus, which is highly contagious, produces red, scaly, ring-shaped patches on the skin. Treating Skin Infections
Athlete’s Foot fungus causing burning, itching, cracking, and peeling of the skin on the feet and between the toes. Treating Skin Infections
Hair protects the scalp from sunlight and provides insulation from the cold. Your Hair Hairs in the nostrils and ears and your eyelashes, prevent debris from entering the body. What is the purpose of hair?
Head lice small insects that live on the scalp and lay their eggs on hair avoid sharing combs, brushes, or hats. Hair Problems
Dandruff occurs when the epidermal cells of the scalp are shed at a faster than normal rate may be caused by fungal infections, overactive oil glands, stress, and heredity
dead skin cells Your Nails protect the tips of your fingers and toes What are your nails? What is the purpose of your nails?
Ingrown toenail sides of a toenail grow into the skin can become infected Nail Problems
Teeth and Gums What would your life be like without teeth? Difficulty eating, talking
Teeth Adult has approximately 32 teeth Adult has approximately 32 teeth Made of living and non-living tissue Made of living and non-living tissue Unable to repair themselves Unable to repair themselves
Teeth Structure EnamelEnamel the hardest material in your body, covers a tooth’s crown CementumCementum covers a tooth’s root and helps to anchor the tooth to the jawbone DentinDentin – –living material that makes up the majority of a tooth PulpPulp – –soft tissue that fills the center of each tooth
Teeth Structure GumsGums pink tissue that surrounds the base of your teeth and covers the bone around the teeth fit tightly around the neck of each tooth like a collar, holding it firmly in place
Teeth Cut food into bite-sized pieces. Crush and grind food. Tear and slash food. Incisors Premolars Molars Canines
Structural Problems w/ Teeth During what period of a person’s life do they experience the most problems with their teeth? during the growing years, changes in the jaw can lead to structural problems
Structural Problems w/ Teeth upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, improper bite Malocclusion What is the problem with malocclusion? chewing difficulty or causes the teeth to wear down unevenly
Wisdom Teeth What are wisdom teeth? the third set of molars When does a person’s wisdom teeth usually grow? between the ages of Why are wisdom teeth often removed? not enough room, prevent from impaction
Tooth Decay cavity or tiny hole forms in enamel cavity or tiny hole forms in enamel What happens if a cavity is not treated? bacteria can decay the rest of layers of the tooth causing an infection Root Canal Therapy infected pulp is removed and replaced with a rubbery material
Gum Disease Plaque white sticky film on teeth Tartar hardened plaque Periodontitis severe tartar infection in the gums can cause teeth to fall out and infect jaw bone Gingivitis build up of tartar that irritates the gum
Gum Disease - Normal
Gum Disease - Gingivitis
Gum Disease - Periodontitis
Gum Disease - Adv. Periodontitis
Caring for Your Teeth Brush at least twice a day, preferably after every meal. halitosis helps prevents halitosis chronic bad breath Use a toothbrush with soft bristles Brush all surfaces of your teeth; outer, inner & top Brush away from your gums Brush your tongue
Caring for Your Teeth Flossing Dental floss removes food and plaque from areas that a toothbrush cannot reach. You should floss your teeth once a day.
Caring for Your Teeth Having regular dental checkups, about twice a year, can identify problems before they become painful or hard to treat. Dental Checkups Because of checkups and other preventive care, young people today generally have fewer cavities than their parents did at the same age. Some people also visit their dentist to discuss teeth whitening. How often should you have a dental checkup?
Dental Professions Orthodontist doctor who corrects the position of the jaw and teeth Periodontist Dental Hygienist specializes in preventive oral health doctor who treats diseases and problems with the structural support of teeth Endodontist doctor who treats diseases and problems with the tooth pulp and root
Complex organs that respond to light by sending impulses. Your Eyes Your brain then interprets the impulses as images.
Eyes Bones around face protect them from injury Eyelashes and eyelids screen out dirt and bright light Tears keep eyes moist and clean How are your eyes protected?
Parts of Eye Cornea – – clear covering over the eye Pupil – – opening in the center of eye Iris – – color of eye and controls amount of light entering eye Lens – – bends the light rays so the come to a point in your eye
Parts of Eye Retina – – Layer of cells that line the back of the eye Rods – – distinguish black and white Cones – – distinguish colors Sclera – – white outer part of eye Optic Nerve – – takes nerve impulses to the brain
Parts of Eye Sclera Iris Pupil Cornea Lens Muscle Retina Macula Optic Nerve Vitreous
How do you see? light strikes the rods and cones, nerve impulses travel through the optic nerves to the brain the brain turns the flipped image right- side up.
Nearsightedness Person see closer objects clearer, but distant objects are blurry Person see closer objects clearer, but distant objects are blurry Images focuses in front of retina Images focuses in front of retina
Farsightedness Person sees distant objects clearly, but close objects are blurry Person sees distant objects clearly, but close objects are blurry Image focuses beyond retina Image focuses beyond retina
Astigmatism Blurred vision at all distances Blurred vision at all distances Irregular shaped cornea or lens Irregular shaped cornea or lens
Color Blindness Hereditary disease Hereditary disease Unable to distinguish certain colors Unable to distinguish certain colors Usually red and green look brown Usually red and green look brown
Pinkeye Inflammation of inner lining of eyelids Inflammation of inner lining of eyelids Caused by bacteria, virus, or allergy Caused by bacteria, virus, or allergy
Glaucoma Increased pressure of the fluids in the eye Increased pressure of the fluids in the eye Damages retina and causes blindness gradually Damages retina and causes blindness gradually
Cataract Lens becomes cloudy and blocks light entering eye Lens becomes cloudy and blocks light entering eye Usually occurs in the elderly Usually occurs in the elderly
Aging or an injury to the eye can cause the retina to separate from the lining of the eye. Detached Retina
This condition occurs when cells in the center of the retina break down. Macular Degeneration
Sties and Conjunctivitis What are sties? painful swelling that occurs when an oil gland at the base of an eyelash becomes infected What is conjunctivitis? an inflammation of the outside layer of the eye.
Eye Care Tips 1. Blink often when using a computer 2. Do not rub your eyes 3. Eat foods rich Vitamin A (Carrots, Red Peppers, Cantaloupe 4. Wear sunglasses outdoors to protect from UV- rays
Ears What are the functions of the ear? 1. Convert sound into nerve impulses for the brain to interpret. 2. Detect position and movement of the head 3. Help you stand upright, walk smoothly, and adjust body position.
Parts of Ear Outer Ear Channels sound waves into the ear canal narrow cavity leading to middle ear Sound waves strike the eardrum causing it to vibrate thin membrane at end of ear canal
Parts of Ear Middle Ear Vibrations from the eardrum pass to the Hammer, Anvil, & Stirrup Three small bones (smallest in body)
Parts of Ear Inner Ear Vibrations from the stirrup pass to the oval window clear membrane attached to the stirrup oval window passes the vibrations to the fluid of the cochlea spiral tube filled with fluid and hair fluid in cochlea move the hairs, which stimulate cells to make nerve impulses nerve impulses are gathered in the auditory nerve and travel to the brain brain interprets the impulse as sound
The semicircular canals send information to your brain about the movements of your head. The Inner Ear and Balance When your head moves, the fluid inside the semicircular canals causes “hairs” in the canals to move. How do the semicircular canals do this? The movement stimulates nerve cells, which send impulses to your brain. What is the structure in the ear that keeps you balanced?
Other Ear Structures Eustachian Tubes Tubes that connect the middle ear to the throat for pressure equalization
Bacterial infections of the middle ear can sometimes result in some hearing loss. Treating Ear Infections A middle-ear infection may cause the eardrum to break, or rupture. Scar tissue makes the eardrum less flexible and less able to transmit sound. Tubes may be inserted in the eardrum to allow fluid to drain from the middle ear.
Cauliflower Ear What is cauliflower ear? Deformity of outer ear caused by repeated hits to the ear
Treating Hearing Problems Audiologist professionals who are trained to evaluate hearing and treat hearing loss
Caring for Ears Clean outer ear but not inner Limit exposure to loud noises