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Leopards “Panthera pardus” Adapted from: dict/phrase/73/leopard.html: Presented to you by : Saliegh Jacobs & Laurenne Snyders.

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Presentation on theme: "Leopards “Panthera pardus” Adapted from: dict/phrase/73/leopard.html: Presented to you by : Saliegh Jacobs & Laurenne Snyders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leopards “Panthera pardus” Adapted from: dict/phrase/73/leopard.html: Presented to you by : Saliegh Jacobs & Laurenne Snyders Fig.1

2 General Information Name: Panthera pardus (Saliegh) Habitat: Bushes, forests, near thickets, along rivers and streams or on mountain sides. Ecology: solitary animals prefer being alone and would go out of their way to avoid one another. territory overlaps with its neighbours. unexpected encounters would end up in fighting except if it’s to mate (South Africa Explored, 2010). Fig. 2 Adapted from:http://michaelnicknichols. com/images/ngm2001-08-88- 9.jpg

3 Biology: white to golden brown in colour have black spots and rosettes which contain 5-6 black spots that are arranged in a tight ring tail is longer than half of its body small round ears as well as large whiskers can weigh between 30kg to 70 kg, females being normally 2/3 the size of males (South Africa Explored, 2010). (Laurenne) Adapted from: Fig.3

4 Methods used to determine the age of a Leopard Four age classes determined by general observation Old Leopards: - teeth -Ears -Scars -Ten to eleven years Prime Adults: -coats -Teeth -Female nipples -Scrotum Sub adults: -appearance -Teeth -Female nipples -Males behaviour Cubs: -weight -teeth -adult association(Owen 2006) (Laurenne) Acdapted from:

5 Age determination of leopards by tooth wear 8-10 months -teeth -eruption 12months: -eruption -canine length 1,5 – 2 years: -eruption -teeth -canine length 2,5 years: -dentition -wear 3years: -wear -chipping -yellowing 4 years: -wear -pulp cavities -yellowing Adapted from: 4/wm/pd748199.jpg Fig.4 (Laurenne)

6 5-6years: -wear -incisor wear -incisors -canine -premolars -Yellowing -Flaking -Canine tips 7-10 years: -wear -Incisors -Canines -Premolars -Yellowing -Flaking(Owen 2006) (Laurenne) Adapted from: 748122.jpg

7 Methods of determining population size In this presentation we will elaborate and discuss 3 ways in which the population size of leopards can be determined. Trap camera Free darting and tagging Leopard tracks Trap camera According to The Snow leopard Trust 2010, scientists and researchers capture pictures of animals without having to be there The cameras are hidden away in habitat of the animal. The cameras automatically take a picture whenever an animal passes it. (Snow leopard trust, 2010) In this method there are 2 well known trap camera types (Snow leopard trust, 2010). active infrared emitter on one side of a trail a infrared detector at the other side, which creates an infrared beam. This beam of infrared light can not be seen by people or leopards takes pictures automatically when animals passes by and break the light beam. Fig. 5 adapted from:http://vne- ( Saliegh )

8 The other type is called passive infrared (Snow leopard trust, 2010) uses a detector that scans the area constantly for infrared wavelengths The heat that radiates off the bodies of animals, give off infrared as it is released to the environment. The passive infrared camera is set to take pictures of any moving body of heat that is detected within its range (Snow leopard trust, 2010). Fig. 6 Adapted from: cam500.gif (saliegh)

9 Free darting and tagging This method involves the use of a moving vehicle and a darter. The vehicle drives out and once a leopard is spotted, the animal is followed until an opportunity presents itself where the animal can be darted safely (CR Owen, 2006). The leopard is darted softly, for if it is shot hard it would cause injury to the animal as well as the dart bouncing out before releasing the sedative to the animal. The animal is moved to a safe location away from predators and other animals. The leopard can either be tagged with a radio fitted collar that is placed around the neck or a small operation, where a tiny radio transmitter is placed in the abdominal area of the leopard. The leopard is then tracked and observed for a 1 year period (CR Owen, 2006) Fig. 7 Adapted from: g

10 Leopard tracks This method is a traditional Russian method and is more common for leopards in the snow. Dimitri Pikunov and Vladimir Abramov were the first to conduct “snow-track leopard counts” in the 1970’s and this method is still used till today. The tracks of the leopards are counted in the snow along a series of routes that are frequently used by the leopards (ALTA, 2010). Although this method proves to be very useful, it is unable to provide very accurate information of the density of the leopard population as well as other vital information. Fig.6 Adapted from: http://www.project- kanch/dave-snow- leopard-tracks.jpg

11 References ALTA Amur leopard conservation. Tracking leopards [internet].ALTA Amur Leopard conservation, Camera-trapping and snow track counts [cited2010 July 27]. Available from: Owen CR.2006.Reproction biology and population ecology of Leopards Panthera pardus on Karongwe [Master degree thesis]. Durban: University of KwaZulu – Natal. 134 p. Snow Leopard Trust. Trap camera studies [internet].Snow Leopard Trust, Science and Research [cited 2010 July 26]. Available from: South Africa Explored. South Africa Wildlife [internet]. South Africa Explored, South Africa Wildlife, Leopards (Panthera pardus).2010 [cited 2010 July 26]. Available from:

12 References Figure 1 : Adapted from: Figure 2 : Adapted from Figure 3: Adapted from: Figure 4: Adapted from: Figure 5: Adapted from: Figure 6: Adapted from: Figure 7: Adapted from:

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