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Normal Radiographic Anatomy of the Equine Head Dr. Pack/Woodland April 7, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Normal Radiographic Anatomy of the Equine Head Dr. Pack/Woodland April 7, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Normal Radiographic Anatomy of the Equine Head Dr. Pack/Woodland April 7, 2011.

2 Indications Nasal Discharge –Sinusitis –Dental Disease Head Trauma –Fractures Facial / Neck Swelling –Guttural Pouch Tympany

3 Technical Considerations Head is mobile and high off the ground Sedation –Lowers head Can use portable equipment 14x17 cassettes Film holding device Rope halter – no buckles

4 Lateral and Oblique Views Standing or recumbent Can visualize sinuses, teeth and skull fractures (frontal bone) –Obliques are needed to carefully assess tooth roots Must label correctly Can use barium as marker on skin if needed

5 Morgan



8 DV/VD Used for comparison between sides Difficult to keep head still and straight –Can throw off symmetry Easier to do VD when patient is under general anesthesia Maxilla is wider than the mandible

9 Morgan

10 Mass on Right side

11 Cranium Foals: dome-shaped –Face lengthens with growth; accommodates teeth and expanding sinuses Adult lateral view –Petrous temporal bones (tympanic bullae not visible) –Nuchal crest –Occipital condyles –Ethmoid turbinates

12 Dyce et. al A - Nuchal crestD - Occipital condyle B - Coronoid processE - Ramus of mandible C - Condylar processF - Body of mandible A B C D E F

13 Equine Skull A = Petrous temporal bone B = Cranium C = Condyloid process D = Coronoid process E = Basioccipital F = Epiglottis G = Ethmoid turbinates

14 A B C D E F G H A – Choncofrontal sinus B – Maxillary sinus C – Condylar process of mandible D – Guttoral pouch E – Stylohyoid bone F – Epiglottis G – Maxillary 3 rd Molar H – Mandibular 2 nd Premolar


16 Equine Sinuses Frontal –Dorsal part of the skull, medial to orbit –Combines with dorsal conchal = conchofrontal Dorsal, ventral and middle conchal Maxillary –Rostal and caudal –Important relationship with the molar cheek teeth Sphenopalatine

17 Dyce et. al Frontal Sinus Caudal Maxillary Sinus Rostral Maxillary Sinus

18 Equine Sinuses Normally air-filled on radiographs Fluid or a soft tissue mass can be seen –Air-fluid lines Hard to tell if one or both sides are affected Maxillary sinus –PM4, M1, M2, M3 tooth roots in sinus –Tooth root infections can easily cause sinusitis

19 Sinuses A = frontal B = dorsal conchal C = stylohyoid bone D = maxillary sinus D

20 Sinuses A - Nasal bone B - Frontal sinus C - Dorsal conchal sinus D - Maxillary sinus E - Mandible

21 Post-op Tooth Repulsion

22 Guttural Pouches Ventral diverticulum of the auditory tube Paired; lateral and medial compartments Superimposed and air-filled on radiographs Dorsal pharyngeal wall separates the ventral wall of the GP from the pharynx Stylohyoid bones can be seen through the air filled GP’s Retropharyngeal lymph nodes –Caudal to the GP –Infection can spread from LN to GP

23 Guttural Pouches

24 A B C A = Petrous Temporal Bone B = Basioccipital bone C = Coronoid Process of the Mandible

25 Basisphenoid / Basiocciptal Fractures Occur primarily in young horses that flip over backward –Poll strikes against ground Clinical signs depend upon amount of displacement –Minimal = usually recover but may have residual head tilt –Severe = cerebral hemorrhage and death If horse can stand, death is not likely




29 Pharynx / Larynx Pharynx –Where nasopharynx and oropharynx join Epiglottis –Dorsal to the soft palate Larynx –Made up of many cartilages which are rarely seen and their location is approximated anatomically on the radiograph

30 Equine Teeth Herbivores = hypsodont teeth –Continuously erupt to compensate for attrition (wearing) –Grinding surface Dental enamel is more dense than bone – Sinuses will be very overexposed Lateral, obliques +/- VD

31 Equine Dental Formula Temporary teeth: Maxillary Mandibular –“Baby” teeth are shorter and smaller Permanent teeth: 3-1-3(4)-3 Maxillary Mandibular –Maxillary premolar 1 is wolf tooth –Canine teeth Rudimentary and commonly fail to erupt in mares

32 Dyce et. al

33 Numbering Teeth Can not definitively tell which side without obliques Make sure to call them maxillary or mandibular Always look for wolf teeth

34 Teeth cont. Mandibular 4 th premolar = Canine Tooth Incisors

35 P2 P4P3M1 M2 M3 M2 M1 P4 P3 P2


37 Tooth root fractures (maxillary molars)

38 Ruminants Horns: - Grow from frontal bones

39 Dental Formula Temporary Teeth: Maxillary Mandibular Permanent Teeth: Maxillary Mandibular


41 Lumpy Jaw (Actinomyces bovis)


43 Test yourself What structures can you correctly identify?

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