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CHAPTER 2 PERSONALITY & MENTAL HEALTH 2014/2105 Mental Health  Psychologist, PhD –study the human mind and human behavior –A doctoral degree usually.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 2 PERSONALITY & MENTAL HEALTH 2014/2105 Mental Health  Psychologist, PhD –study the human mind and human behavior –A doctoral degree usually."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CHAPTER 2 PERSONALITY & MENTAL HEALTH 2014/2105

3 Mental Health  Psychologist, PhD –study the human mind and human behavior –A doctoral degree usually is required for independent practice as a psychologist. –Does therapy  Psychiatrist, MD –a physician who specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders –Prescribes meds.

4 Other Health Professionals  Clinical Psychologist – trained to recognize and treat behavior  Psychiatric Social Worker – helps patients and their families  Neurologist – doctor who treats physical disorders of the nervous system  Mental Health Counselor – focus on specific mental problems

5  Social Worker – assist people by providing counseling for patients and families; help person adjust to life  Recreational Therapist – uses activities as therapist  Psychiatric Aide- helps people with mental disorders do basic things.

6 SIGMUND FREUD  Theories:  1) Hysteria is the result of a traumatic experience  2) The organism is special in that it acts to survive and reproduce  3) Personality is made of 3 parts: id,id, Ego,Ego, superegosuperego

7 Freud, cont.  Conscious and unconscious thoughts.  Conscious thoughts are thoughts that can be easily recalled.  Unconscious thoughts are thoughts that can not be easily recalled; but they maybe experiences that did occur.  Psychoanalysis – therapy that brings forward memories, through hypnoses.

8 Carl Jung  Theory:  The Psyche has three parts: –Ego: related to the personal unconscious, includes both memories that are easily brought to mind and those that are suppressed –Collective unconscious: a kind of knowledge we are born with.

9 Four basic Functions:  Sensing means getting information by means of the senses  Thinking – means evaluating information or ideas rationally, logically

10  Intuiting – works outside of the usual conscious processes  Feeling – is a matter of evaluating information by weighing one’s overall emotional response

11 Erik ERIKSON  Theory:  Humans develop socially & psychologically up until their death.

12 Eight Stages of Development: Trust vs. Mistrust -- feeding Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt – toilet training Initiative vs. Guilt – independence Industry vs. Inferiority – school

13 Erikson – stages of development (cont) Identity vs. Role Confusion – adolescence Intimacy vs. Isolation – love relationships Generativity vs. Stagnation – parenting Ego Integrity vs. Despair -- reflections

14 5 Central Traits  Extroversion *Introversion  Agreeableness *Suspicious  Conscientiousness *Impulsive  Emotional Stability *Fearful/Worried  Openness to Experience *Predictable

15 How is personality developed?  Heredity – genetics, person can not change who she/he is.  Environmental – influences us to act a certain way –Modeling – coping behavior

16 Self - Esteem  Self image – it’s the overall picture you have of yourself –Appearance –Abilities –View of how others see you

17 Self-Esteem  Who develops it?  Who affects it?

18 Benefits of High Self-Esteem  Realistic about strengths and weaknesses  Able to take on the responsibilities of daily living  Caring toward oneself and others  Able to handle disappointments and learn from them  Able to feel enjoyment & sense of achievement

19 Improving Self-Esteem 1. Take inventory of strengths & weaknesses 2. Set ambitious, but realistic goals 3. Do not be too hard on yourself. 4. Rely on your values, choose good friends 5. Learn to accept compliments

20 6. Do something nice for others. 7. Do not focus too much on appearance, practice good health habits 8. Avoid negative thinking.

21 Emotions  Primary Emotions –Happiness –Sadness –Anger –Fear

22 Learned Emotions  Love –Compassion –Romantic  Guilt

23 Coping Strategies Defense Mechanism  Compensation  Rationalization  Denial  Reaction Formation  Projection  Regression

24 Mental Disorders  Abnormal thoughts, feeling or behavior that makes a person uncomfortable with him/her environment and at odds with others.

25 Anxiety Disorders - fear that does not have an identifiable source or fear caused by a danger that no longer exist.  Phobic Disorders - when anxiety is related to a specific situation or object.  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - thinking and acting in a rigid way  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – a traumatic experience that is reexperienced.

26 Mood Disorders - moods or emotions become extreme & interfere with daily life  Clinical Depression - condition in which the person is overwhelmed by sad feelings for months and stops being able to carry out every day activities.  Bipolar - person shifts from one extreme to another for no apparent reason.

27 Somatoform Disorders – complain of physical symptoms, such as pain, with no physical cause.  Hypochondria - constant fear of disease and preoccupation with one’s health.  Body Dysmorphic disorder – preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in physical appearance.

28 Jocelyn Wildenstein

29 Factitious Disorders – are characterized by physical/psychological symptoms that are intentionally produced  Munchausen by Proxy – hurting others, such as children to seek attention or sympathy

30  Anorexia Nervosa - refusing to eat, don’t maintain a normal body weight: causes death  Bulimia Nervosa- binge eating followed by purging  Binge-eating Disorder – recurrent episodes of binge eating, with no purging Eating Disorders - emotional problems revealed through abnormal eating

31 Personality Disorder - characterized by behavior that is inflexible  Borderline Personality Disorder – a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships  Narcissistic Personality Disorder – a pattern of grandiosity, lack of empathy  Antisocial Personality Disorder - perform cruel and violent acts without feeling any guilt

32 Psychopath vs. Sociopath  Predisposition to Violence: High Varied  Impulsivity : HighVaries  Behavior : ErraticControlled  Criminal behavior : –Leave clues and act on impulse. Schemes and take calculated risks

33 Dissociative Disorders - becoming disconnected from former identity  Dissociative Amnesia - sudden loss of memory, caused by severe emotional trauma  Dissociative Identity Disorder- switching between two or more separate personalities –are not aware of the other personalities that coexist within the mind.

34 Schizophrenia - Means “split mind”  A disorder characterized by unpredictable disturbances in thinking, mood, awareness and behavior. –Talk to themselves, dialogue –dress and act strangely


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