2Section 1 The Early Greeks Section 2 Sparta and Athens The Ancient GreeksChapter IntroductionSection 1 The Early GreeksSection 2 Sparta and AthensSection 3 Persia Attacks the GreeksSection 4 The Age of PericlesReading ReviewChapter AssessmentClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
3The Ancient Greeks Chapter Objectives Describe how geography and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations influenced Greek culture. Compare the city-states of Sparta and Athens. Identify the causes and effects of Greek wars with Persia. Describe Athens under the leadership of Pericles and reasons Athens declined.
4The Ancient GreeksClick the speaker button to play the audio.
6The Early Greeks Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the impact of geography on ancient Greece and the rise of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations.
7Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Early GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe geography of Greece influenced where people settled and what they did. The Minoans earned their living by building ships and trading. Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms and spread their power across the Mediterranean region.
8Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Early GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.)Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and spurred industry. The idea of citizenship developed in Greek city-states.
9Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Early GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesCrete (KREET) Mycenae (my·SEE·nee) Peloponnesus (PEH·luh·puh·NEE·suhs) Meeting PeopleAgamemnon (A·guh·MEHM·nahn)
10Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Early GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabularypeninsula (puh·NIHN·suh·luh) colony (KAH·luh·nee) polis (PAH·luhs) agora (A·guh·ruh) Reading StrategyFinding Details Draw a diagram like the one on page 116 of your textbook. In each oval write one detail about a polis.
11The Geography of Greece The Early GreeksThe Geography of GreeceMainland Greece is a mountainous peninsula—a body of land with water on three sides. The Ionian Sea is to the west of Greece, the Aegean Sea is to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea is to the south. Ancient Greeks were fishers, sailors, traders, and farmers.(page 117)
12The Geography of Greece The Early GreeksThe Geography of GreeceAlthough Greece’s rocky soil made it difficult to farm, people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes in the favorable climate.(page 117)
13The Early GreeksHow might a peninsula be affected by its surrounding water?Land might be limited, the climate might be positively or adversely affected, and occupations of the people might be ocean-related, such as sailing and fishing.
14The Early Greeks The Minoans The ruins of the Minoan civilization, the first civilization to arise in Greece, are on the island of Crete. Artifacts at the palace at Knossos reveal the riches of the Minoan people, such as wine, oil, jewelry, and statues. The Minoan people were traders, traveling by ship to trade with other countries.(page 118)
15The Early Greeks The Minoans (cont.) The Minoan civilizations collapsed around 1450 B.C., although historians disagree on the cause of the Minoan destruction.(page 118)
16The Early GreeksHow do historians know the Minoans were a wealthy people?Artifacts at the palace of Knossos included items only wealthy people would have, such as bathrooms.
17The First Greek Kingdoms The Early GreeksThe First Greek KingdomsThe first Greek kings were Mycenaean leaders, whose people invaded the Greek mainland around 1900 B.C. The center of the Mycenaean kingdom was a palace surrounded by large farms. The Mycenaeans began trading with the Minoans and learned much about Minoan culture.(pages 119–120)
18The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.) The Early GreeksThe First Greek Kingdoms (cont.)Before collapsing around 1100 B.C., the Mycenaean civilization was the most powerful on the Mediterranean. The Dark Age occurred between 1100 B.C. and 150 B.C. and was a time of less trade and poverty among people. The Dorians invaded Greece, bringing new weapons and farming technology to the Greek people.(pages 119–120)
19The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.) The Early GreeksThe First Greek Kingdoms (cont.)The Greeks learned about an alphabet from the Phoenicians, one of their trading partners. The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for different sounds.(pages 119–120)
20The Early Greeks What was one positive result of the Dark Age? Greeks left the mainland and settled in other countries. This helped spread Greek culture.
21The Early Greeks A Move to Colonize After the Dark Age, Greek people began to set up colonies in other countries. This colonization spread Greek culture. Trade between colonists and the parent cities grew, and soon merchants were trading goods for money instead of more goods.(page 121)
22The Early Greeks What invention allowed merchants to trade for money? The Greeks began minting coins, which allowed merchants to trade for money.
23The Early Greeks The Polis A polis, or city-state, was like an independent country. City-states varied in size and population. An acropolis, located at the top of a hill, was the main gathering place of the city-state. An agora, or open area, served as a market and as a place for people to meet and debate issues.(pages 122–123)
24The Early Greeks The Polis (cont.) The Greeks were the first people to develop the idea of citizenship, in which citizens of a country are treated equally and have rights and responsibilities. In Greek city-states, only free, native-born, land-owning men could be citizens. Citizens could vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court.(pages 122–123)
25The Early Greeks The Polis (cont.) The military of the city-states was made of ordinary citizens, not nobles. These citizens were called hoplites and fought each battle on foot instead of on horses.(pages 122–123)
26The Early GreeksHow does the Greek definition of a citizen compare to the modern idea of who is a United States citizen?Ancient Greeks decided that only free, native-born, land-owning men could be citizens. In modern United States, men and women, native-born and naturalized people can be citizens, whether they own property or not.
27The Early Greeks What made the Minoans wealthy? trading pottery and stone vases
28The Early Greeks How was a Greek city-state different from a city? City-states were tiny independent countries, while cities are part of a country.
29The Early GreeksSummarize What changes occurred in Greece during the Dark Age?Trade slowed, poverty took hold, people stopped farming, people stopped teaching writing and craftwork, and many Greeks moved elsewhere.
30The Early GreeksCitizenship Skills Name three rights granted to Greek citizens that American citizens have today.Answers include voting, holding office, owning property, defending themselves in court.
31The Early GreeksLink to Economics Why did the use of money help trade to grow?Money is small and easier to trade than bartered goods.
32The Early Greeks Discuss the following statement: “The geography of Greece influenced where people settled and what they did.”
34Sparta and Athens Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section traces the development of Greek governments and compares the systems adopted by Sparta and Athens.
35Get Ready to Read (cont.) Sparta and AthensGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasTyrants were able to seize power from the nobles with the support of Greek farmers, merchants, and artisans. The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered. Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force.
36Get Ready to Read (cont.) Sparta and AthensGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesSparta (SPAHR·tuh) Athens (A·thuhnz) Meeting PeopleSolon (SOH·luhn) Peisistratus (py·SIHS·truht·uhs) Cleisthenes (KLYS·thuh·NEEZ)
37Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary Sparta and AthensGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabularytyrant (TY·ruhnt) oligarchy (AH·luh·GAHR·kee) democracy (dih·MAH·kruh·see) helot (HEH·luht) Reading StrategyCompare and Contrast Draw a Venn diagram like the one on page 124 of your textbook. Compare and contrast life in Sparta and Athens.
38Tyranny in the City-States Sparta and AthensTyranny in the City-StatesNobles, who owned large farms, seized power from the Greek kings. Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from the Greek kings. Farmers had to borrow money from nobles and often could not pay back the debt. The farmers lost their land and had to work for the nobles or were sold into slavery.(pages 125–126)
39Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) Sparta and AthensTyranny in the City-States (cont.)Unhappy farmers demanded changes in the power structure of the city-states. This unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants, or people who take power by force and rule with total authority. Tyrants overthrew the nobles during the 600s B.C.(pages 125–126)
40Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) Sparta and AthensTyranny in the City-States (cont.)Tyrants maintained their popularity by building marketplaces, temples, and walls. The Greek people eventually tired of the tyrants and created oligarchies or democracies. An oligarchy is a form of government in which a few people hold power.(pages 125–126)
41Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) Sparta and AthensTyranny in the City-States (cont.)A democracy is a form of government in which all citizens share power. Sparta was an oligarchy; Athens was a democracy.(pages 125–126)
42Sparta and AthensHow are tyrants today different from those in ancient Greece?Today the word tyrant means a harsh, oppressive ruler. Today’s tyrants are not concerned with the common good of their country’s people.
43Sparta and Athens Sparta To obtain more land, Spartans conquered and enslaved their neighbors, calling them helots. To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans created a strong military of boys and men. Boys entered the military at age seven. At age 20, men entered the regular army and lived in the barracks for 10 years.(pages 126–127)
44Sparta and Athens Sparta (cont.) They returned home at age 30 but served in the army until age 60. Spartan girls were trained in sports to become healthy mothers and were freer than other Greek women. The Spartan government was an oligarchy containing two branches, a council of elders, and an assembly.(pages 126–127)
45Sparta and Athens Sparta (cont.) The Spartan government kept foreign travelers out and discouraged its own citizens from traveling in order to maintain control of the country.(pages 126–127)
46Sparta and AthensWhat was one disadvantage of the Spartans’ focus on the military?They did not learn as much about science or practice as much trade as Greeks in Athens.
47Sparta and Athens Athens Boys in Athens attended school to learn reading, writing, and arithmetic. Athenian girls learned household duties from their mothers. Some wealthy girls learned reading, writing, and playing the lyre. The government of early Athens was an oligarchy.(pages 128–130)
48Sparta and Athens Athens (cont.) A noble named Solon reformed the Athenian government in 594 B.C. The tyrant Peisistratus seized power 30 years after Solon’s reforms. Cleisthenes took power in 508 B.C. He created a democracy in Athens. Cleisthenes gave the assembly more power.(pages 128–130)
49Sparta and Athens Athens (cont.) He also created a new council to help the assembly carry out its duties. Members of the council were chosen by lottery.(pages 128–130)
50Sparta and AthensWhy did the people of Athens remain unhappy after Solon’s reforms?Solon refused to give away land of the wealthy nobles, so the farmers remained unhappy.
51Sparta and Athens Who were the helots? The helots were captive workers in Sparta.
52Sparta and Athens Why did tyrants fall out of favor with the Greeks? Most Greeks longed for rule by law with all citizens participating in government.
53Sparta and AthensEvaluate Why did Athenians choose officials by lottery?Would there be drawbacks to this method? Explain.They thought elections might favor the rich.Possible answer: The most qualified people might not be picked.
54Sparta and Athens Explain How did Greek nobles gain power? They seized power from kings during the Dark Age.
55Sparta and AthensAnalyze Why was Solon popular among some Athenian farmers and unpopular among others?He canceled farmers’ debts and freed those who had become enslaved, but he refused to give away wealthy nobles’ land.
56Sparta and AthensCivics Link How did Athenian democracy keep one person from gaining too much power?A large council chosen by lottery kept power distributed among the people.
57Sparta and AthensDescriptive Writing Imagine that you are a 28-year-old man living in Sparta in 700 B.C. Write a letter to your 6-year-old nephew telling him what to expect when he leaves home on his next birthday.Your letter should discuss early military training and the importance of serving Sparta.
58Sparta and AthensHow would a citizen of Sparta complete this sentence:“I’m proud of my city-state because _______.”
60Get Ready to Read Section Overview Persia Attacks the Greeks This section traces the rise of the Persian Empire and how the Greeks prevented the Persians from conquering them.
61Get Ready to Read (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians.
62Get Ready to Read (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesPersia (PUHR·zhuh) Marathon (MAR·uh·THAHN) Thermopylae (thuhr·MAH·puh·lee) Salamis (SA·luh·muhs) Plataea (pluh·TEE·uh)
63Get Ready to Read (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Meeting PeopleCyrus the Great (SY·ruhs) Darius (duh·RY·uhs) Xerxes (ZUHRK·SEEZ) Themistocles (thuh·MIHS·tuh·KLEEZ)
64Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary Persia Attacks the GreeksGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your VocabularySatrapies (SAY·truh·pees) Satrap (SAY·TRAP) Zoroastrianism (ZOHR·uh·WAS·tree·uh·NIH·zuhm) Reading StrategyOrganizing Information Create a Chart like the one on page 131 of your textbook. List the accomplishments of Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes.
65The Persian Empire Persia Attacks the Greeks Persians were warriors and nomads who lived in Persia, the southwestern area of what is today Iran. Cyrus the Great united the Persians. The Persians built a large empire, conquering Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and Phoenician cities.(pages 132–133)
66The Persian Empire (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksThe Persian Empire (cont.)Darius came to power in 521 B.C. and reorganized the government. The empire under Darius was divided into satrapies, each with a ruler known as a satrap. The satraps answered to the king.(pages 132–133)
67The Persian Empire (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksThe Persian Empire (cont.)The military of Persia consisted of full-time, paid soldiers known as Immortals. Zoroastrianism, the religion of Persia, was founded by Zoroaster, who believed in one god, the freedom of humans, and the triumph of good.(pages 132–133)
68Persia Attacks the Greeks How did Cyrus’s compassion for his people help the Persian Empire grow?People are more likely to follow a rulers who cares about them. People often attempt to overthrow cruel or unfair rulers.
69The Persian Wars Persia Attacks the Greeks After a failed rebellion by the Greeks, King Darius decided to stop the Greeks from interfering in his empire. The Battle of Marathon occurred in 490 B.C. on the plain of Marathon, a short distance from Athens. The Persians waited there for the Athenians.(pages 134–137)
70The Persian Wars (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksThe Persian Wars (cont.)When they did not come, the Persian commander ordered the troops back on the boat. When the horsemen were on the boat, the Greeks charged the Persian foot soldiers and defeated them. After Darius’s death, his son Xerxes became king. He vowed a new invasion of Greece.(pages 134–137)
71The Persian Wars (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksThe Persian Wars (cont.)Athens and Sparta joined forces to defend against Xerxes’s attack. The Greeks fought the Persians at Thermopylae for two days. The Greeks lost the battle, but 200 ships were assembled in Athens.(pages 134–137)
72The Persian Wars (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksThe Persian Wars (cont.)At the Battle of Salamis, the Greeks used their faster, smaller ships to defeat the Persian fleet.(pages 134–137)
73The Persian Wars (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksThe Persian Wars (cont.)The Persians entered Athens and burned the city. The Greek army won at Plataea. This was the turning point of the wars with Persia. The Persian Empire fell for several reasons.(pages 134–137)
74The Persian Wars (cont.) Persia Attacks the GreeksThe Persian Wars (cont.)The Persians were weakened by war, and their rulers taxed the people and spent the money lavishly. The sons of kings had little power, so they killed rulers to get power.(pages 134–137)
75Persia Attacks the Greeks How did modern marathon races get their name?Legend tells that the Athenians sent a messenger to Athens after their victory at the Battle of Marathon. The messenger ran nearly 25 miles to Athens. There he collapsed. His final word was “victory.” Today’s marathons are about 26 miles long.
76Persia Attacks the Greeks Why was Cyrus considered a fair ruler?He treated new subjects well.
77Persia Attacks the Greeks What was the Royal Road?The Royal Road was a vast road that connected Persian cities.
78Persia Attacks the Greeks Persuasive Writing Imagine you are an adviser to Xerxes and are alarmed about his plan for revenge on Greece. Compose a letter to him outlining reasons why he should cancel his invasion of Greece.Answers will vary.
79Persia Attacks the Greeks Why do historians consider the Greek defeat of the Persians a turning point in history?It led to the rise of Athenian power and to a period of great philosophy.
81Get Ready to Read Section Overview The Age of Pericles This section explores how Athens blossomed under Pericles and the reasons Athens and Sparta went to war.
82Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Age of PericlesGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasUnder Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic. Athenian men and women had very different roles. Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece.
83Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Age of PericlesGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesDelos (DEE·LAHS) Meeting PeoplePericles (PEHR·uh·KLEEZ) Aspasia (as·PAY·zhuh) Building Your Vocabularydirect democracy (dih·MAH·kruh·see)
84Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary (cont.) The Age of PericlesGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabulary (cont.)representative democracy (REH·prih·ZEHN·tuh·tihv) philosopher (fuh·LAH·suh·fuhr) Reading StrategyOrganizing Information Create a circle graph like the one on page 138 of your textbook. Show how many citizens, foreigners, and enslaved people lived in Athens in the 400s B.C.
85The Athenian Empire The Age of Pericles Athens joined forces with other city-states to form the Delian League. The Delian League promised to defend its members against the Persians. Athens eventually gained control of the Delian League. The Athenians moved the Delian League from Delos to Athens.(pages 139–140)
86The Athenian Empire (cont.) The Age of PericlesThe Athenian Empire (cont.)Athens had a direct democracy. In a direct democracy, people vote firsthand on laws and policies. Direct democracy worked because of the small number of Athenian citizens. In a representative democracy, people select smaller groups to vote on behalf of the people.(pages 139–140)
87The Athenian Empire (cont.) The Age of PericlesThe Athenian Empire (cont.)A general named Pericles led Athens for more than 30 years. He promoted democracy by including more people in the government. The age of Pericles was a time of creativity and learning. Pericles built temples and statues in the city after the destruction of the Persian Wars.(pages 139–140)
88The Athenian Empire (cont.) The Age of PericlesThe Athenian Empire (cont.)He also supported artists, writers, architects, and philosophers. Philosophers are people who ponder questions about life.(pages 139–140)
89The Age of PericlesWhy wouldn’t a direct democracy work in the United States?More than 206 million adults would need to meet to cast a vote. This large number of people would make the meetings impossible.
90Daily Life in Athens The Age of Pericles In the 400s B.C., the population of Athens was about 285,000. This made Athens the largest of all Greek city-states. Most Athenian homes had at least one slave, and wealthy families had many slaves.(pages 142–144)
91Daily Life in Athens (cont.) The Age of PericlesDaily Life in Athens (cont.)(pages 142–144)
92Daily Life in Athens (cont.) The Age of PericlesDaily Life in Athens (cont.)Athenian farmers grew grain, vegetables, fruit, olives, and grapes. Because there was little farmland, Athens had to import grain from other places. Herders raised sheep and goats for wool, milk, and cheese. Athens became the trading center of the Greek world.(pages 142–144)
93Daily Life in Athens (cont.) The Age of PericlesDaily Life in Athens (cont.)Merchants traded pottery, jewelry, leather goods, and other products. Athenian men worked in the morning and exercised or attended assembly meetings in the evening. Athenian women were responsible for caring for their children and their households. Poor women might work in the fields or sell goods.(pages 142–144)
94Daily Life in Athens (cont.) The Age of PericlesDaily Life in Athens (cont.)Athenian women had no political rights and could not own property. Aspasia was a well-educated woman who influenced Plato and Pericles. Although she could not vote or hold office, she was influential in politics.(pages 142–144)
95The Age of PericlesWhy were slaves important to Athenians?Slaves provided important labor to merchants and artisans. Without slaves, Athens would not have been able to support its economy.
96The Peloponnesian War The Age of Pericles Other city-states along with Sparta became suspicious of Athens. These city-states joined together against Athens. The war that broke out is known as the Peloponnesian War. Pericles’s funeral oration reminded Athenians about democracy and gave them courage to continue fighting.(pages 144–146)
97The Peloponnesian War (cont.) The Age of PericlesThe Peloponnesian War (cont.)Athenians outside the city walls moved inside the city to protect themselves. In the second year of the war, a disease killed more than one-third of the people inside Athens’ walls, including Pericles. Sparta made a deal with the Athenians and built a navy.(pages 144–146)
98The Peloponnesian War (cont.) The Age of PericlesThe Peloponnesian War (cont.)The Spartan navy defeated the Athenian navy, which brought supplies to the Athenians. Athens then surrendered.(pages 144–146)
99The Age of PericlesWhat was the effect of the Peloponnesian War on the city-states?Many people died, and others lost jobs. Farmers also had their land destroyed. The Greeks could not reunite again.
100The Age of Pericles What caused the Peloponnesian War? expansion of Athenian power and Spartan jealousy
101The Age of PericlesAccording to Pericles, what duties did Athenian citizens have?Citizens must obey rules, pay taxes, and defend the city.
102The Age of PericlesAnalyze What caused the lack of trust between Sparta and Athens.lack of understanding of their differing societies, and perceived Athenian aggression
103The Age of PericlesInterpreting Visuals Examine the drawing of the Athenian home on page 142 of your textbook.What does it show about the role of women in Athens?Women performed most domestic chores and did not eat with men.
104The Age of PericlesCivics Link How did the direct democracy of Athens differ from the democracy we have in the United States?Answers should reflect information from the text.
105The Age of PericlesExpository Writing Describe the role of the Delian League in the creation of the Athenian empire.Athens gradually took over the Delian League and replaced it with its empire.
106The Age of PericlesSummarize relations between Sparta and Athens.
108Section 1: The Early Greeks The Ancient GreeksSection 1: The Early GreeksFocusing on the Main IdeasThe geography of Greece influenced where people settled and what they did. The Minoans earned their living by building ships and trading. Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms and spread their power across the Mediterranean region.
109Section 1: The Early Greeks The Ancient GreeksSection 1: The Early GreeksFocusing on the Main IdeasColonies and trade spread Greek culture and spurred industry. The idea of citizenship developed in Greek city-states.
110Section 2: Sparta and Athens The Ancient GreeksSection 2: Sparta and AthensFocusing on the Main IdeasTyrants were able to seize power from the nobles with the support of Greek farmers, merchants, and artisans. The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered. Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force.
111Section 3: Persia Attacks the Greeks The Ancient GreeksSection 3: Persia Attacks the GreeksFocusing on the Main IdeasThe Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians.
112Section 4: The Age of Pericles The Ancient GreeksSection 4: The Age of PericlesFocusing on the Main IdeasUnder Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic. Athenian men and women had very different roles. Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece.
114The Ancient Greeks Review Vocabulary A. satrap B. agora C. democracy Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence.__ 1. In a(n) ___, a few wealthy people hold power.__ 2. The Greek mainland is a(n) ___, a body of land with water on three sides.__ 3. In a(n) ___, people at mass meetings make decisions for the government.EA. satrapB. agoraC. democracyD. direct democracyE. oligarchyF. peninsulaFD
115The Ancient Greeks Review Vocabulary A. satrap B. agora C. democracy Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence.__ 4. A(n) ___, acted as tax collector, judge, chief of police, and army recruiter.__ In a(n) ___, all citizens share in running the government.__ 6. Below the acropolis was an open area called an(n) ___.AA. satrapB. agoraC. democracyD. direct democracyE. oligarchyF. peninsulaCB
116The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 1 The Early GreeksHow did the geography of Greece influence where people settled and how they made a living?The rocky mountains caused people to settle by the seacoast and become fishers, sailors, and traders.
117The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 1 The Early GreeksHow did the Greek colonies help industry to grow?They promoted trade, industry, and specialized goods.
118The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 2 Sparta and AthensWhy were tyrants able to seize control from Greek nobles?They had the support of the common people, many of whom were hoplites.
119The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 2 Sparta and AthensDescribe the differences between Athens and Sparta.Sparta emphasized the military and strict living, while Athens focused on democracy and culture.
120The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 3 Persia Attacks the GreeksWhat system did Darius use to unite his large empire under one government?He used divisions called satrapies with rulers responsible to him.
121The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 3 Persia Attacks the GreeksWhy did Sparta and Athens unite during the Persian Wars?They feared Persian conquest of Greece.
122The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 4 The Age of PericlesHow was democracy expanded during the Age of Pericles?Pericles involved more people in government and paid officeholders so poorer citizens could serve.
123The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas Section 4 The Age of PericlesWhat was the result of the Peloponnesian War?Athens declined. Greece grew weaker, opening it to conquest.
124The Ancient GreeksCause and Effect How did the geography of Greece help to encourage trade?The Greek peninsula gave the Greeks easy access to sea routes all over the Mediterranean.
125The Ancient GreeksConclude Did the people of ancient Athens have a full democracy? Explain.Yes. All citizens voted and could take part in lawmaking. No. Women, foreigners, and enslaved people were excluded.
126The Ancient GreeksExplain Do you think people would enjoy more freedom in an oligarchy or a tyranny? Explain.Possible answers: It would depend on the rulers. A tyrant might be fair and well-liked or harsh and disliked. An oligarchy involves more people in government, but rivalries might weaken it. Oligarchs might be more willing to let people suffer.
128Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 4-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
129Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. MapsAncient Greece c. 750 B.C.Greek Colonies and Trade 750–550 B.C.Sparta and Athens c. 700 B.C.The Persian Empire 500 B.C.Persian Wars 499–479 B.C.The Peloponnesian War 431–404 B.C.ChartsThe Greek AlphabetComparing GovernmentsClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
138The Early GreeksIn early Greece, roads were bumpy dirt trails and of little use to travelers. Because of this, ships became very important. To be near ships, most Greek communities settled within 60 miles of the sea.
139Sparta and AthensChildren in ancient Greece played many games we still play today, including backgammon, checkers, hockey, and chess.
140Persia Attacks the Greeks After conquering Babylon in 539 B.C., Cyrus the Great wrote the Charter of Human Rights, which many historians call the first declaration of human rights.
141The Age of PericlesAthens is named for its patron goddess, Athena.
142Reading Social Studies Learn It!Use What You KnowUnlock meaning by making a connection between what you read and what you already know. Your own experiences can help you understand words or ideas that are unfamiliar. Read the paragraph on the next slide. Make a connection between a Greek agora and a place that is familiar to you.
143Reading Social Studies Below the acropolis was an open area called an agora (A·guh·ruh). This space had two functions: it was both a market and a place where people could meet and debate issues —from page 122Do you know what an agora looks like?You know what a market looks like. Can you also visualize a place where people could meet? If so, then you have a good idea of what an agora might look like.Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
144Reading Social Studies Practice It!Making the ConnectionRead the paragraph from Chapter 4 on page 115 of your textbook and then answer the questions below. Do you have any family members or friends who are 20 years old? What would they say if they were required to serve in the army for 40 years? Have you ever seen or tasted food that looks like “black broth”?Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
153Women’s Duties Focus on Everyday Life In ancient Athens, a woman’s place was in the home. Her two main responsibilities were caring for the household and raising children. The Greek writer Xenophon (ZEH·nuh·fuhn) recorded a man’s explanation of women’s duties.
155Women’s Duties Focus on Everyday Life The second floor of each home was the women’s quarters. An Athenian woman lived there with her children. She was expected to keep her children well and happy. She encouraged them to learn sports and play with toys, and taught them how to interact with friends and family members. Although boys left home at age seven to attend school, girls stayed with their mothers, learning how to care for a house and children.
156Possible answer: to keep them separate from men Connecting to the Past1. Why do you think women and children lived on the second floor of the home?Possible answer: to keep them separate from men2. Over what areas of life did an Athenian woman have authority?caring for the household and raising childrenClick the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.