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An Intellectual Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "An Intellectual Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Intellectual Revolution
The Enlightenment An Intellectual Revolution

2 The Enlightenment A movement called the Age of Reason when people began to question the tradition in place governing humans in law, education, religion, and government The United States and France experienced the effects of this movement in the 18th century

3 The Road to The Age of Reason
The Magna Carta signed by King John in England 1215 limiting monarchism Creation of a parliament

4 The Renaissance questions art and literature in both subject matter and technique…celebrating Humanism The Reformation questions the Catholic Church and the power of the Pope The Scientific Revolution questions the laws of nature Now, people begin to question how they are ruled!

5 The Age of Absolutism Collides with the Enlightenment
They believed citizens could create a utopian society…a perfect society based on reason and natural law The intellectuals who pushed these new ideas were called Philosophes They were critics, economists, and reformers

6 The Philosophes Started by English thinkers of the 1600’s
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Both are deeply affected by the events of the English Civil War between: Charles I and Parliament

7 Thomas Hobbes Ideas are in “Leviathan” (1651)
Believed all humans had wicked and selfish tendencies Governments are necessary for law and order Must give up rights to a strong rulers in exchange for law and order This agreement is the Social Contract Absolute Monarchs were necessary


9 John Locke Had a more positive view of human nature
Humans had the ability to rule themselves Favored self-government over absolute rule Believed people born free and equal with 3 Natural Rights: Life, Liberty, and Property

10 Sole purpose of government to protect these rights
If government fails, citizens have the right to overthrow the government Power of the government comes from the consent of the governed Inspired by the Glorious Revolution of 1689 Thought James II deserved to be overthrown! Book “Two Treatises on Government”

11 Paris becomes the hip place to discuss these subversive ideas:
Salons Wealthy patrons who despised the king of France Unhappy citizens hungry for new ideas

12 Voltaire Pen name, real name Francois Marie Arouet, famous essay, “Candide”(1759) Used satire against opponents Targeted clergy, aristocracy, and king Spent time in prison and exiled Championed free speech, press, assembly, and religion

13 “I disagree with what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it”

14 Baron de Montesquieu An aristocrat and a lawyer
Studied the Ancient Roman Republic Admired the British system Supported 3 branches of govenrment Executive, Legislative, Judiciary Checks and Balances and Separation of Power “On the Spirit of the Laws” (1748)

15 “Power should be a check to power”

16 Jean Jacques Rousseau Son of a poor watchmaker/nobility abolished
Believed all people were equal Supported true democracy Humans are good, but the society in which they live is corrupt and bad Submission to the authority of the will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others “The Social Contract” (1762) Grand-daddy of all subversive thinkers: His writings inspire communism/socialism

17 “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains”

18 Cesare Beccaria Italian philosophe “On Crimes and Punishment” (1764)
Criticized common abuses of justice Abolish torture of prisoners Cruel and unusual punishment Speedy trial Punishment should be based on the crime Abolish capital punishment

19 Adam Smith Free markets…no government interference Laissez-faire
Capitalism Scottish economist “The Wealth of Nations”


21 Adam Smith Quote The statesman who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention, but assume an authority which could safely be trusted, not only to no single person, but to no council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it.

22 It is not by augmenting the capital of the country, but by rendering a greater part of that capital active and productive than would otherwise be so, that the most judicious operations of banking can increase the industry of the country.

23 Mary Wollstonecraft “ A Vindication of the Rights of Women” (1792)
Women need to be educated as well as men…it was the key to gaining freedom Women should be able to pursue all occupations Women should participate in government She died giving birth to daughter Mary Her daughter,Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, went on to write “Frankenstein”

24 Major Effects of the Enlightenment
These radical writers challenged long-held tradition Inspired reforms and revolutions The American Revolution (1776) Constitution and Bill of Rights The French Revolution (1789)

25 Ptolemaic Theory-Wrong
Ptolemaic Universe Earth-centric (geo) contained the moon , planets and the fixed stars Proved wrong by Copernicus and Galileo

26 Copernicus-Heliocentric

27 Galileo Galileo turned his telescope to the skies and made a
remarkable series of discoveries: – mountains on the moon, – four moons revolving around Jupiter, – sunspots. • Galileo’s observations come into conflict with the Vatican…forced to recant The Starry Messenger


29 Isaac Newton Isaac Newton-Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University, where he wrote his major work, “Principia” Three Laws of Motion In mathematical terms, Newton explained that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity

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