Presentation on theme: "An Intellectual Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Intellectual Revolution The EnlightenmentAn Intellectual Revolution
2 The EnlightenmentA movement called the Age of Reason when people began to question the tradition in place governing humans in law, education, religion, and governmentThe United States and France experienced the effects of this movement in the 18th century
3 The Road to The Age of Reason The Magna Carta signed by King John in England 1215 limiting monarchismCreation of a parliament
4 The Renaissance questions art and literature in both subject matter and technique…celebrating HumanismThe Reformation questions the Catholic Church and the power of the PopeThe Scientific Revolution questions the laws of natureNow, people begin to question how they are ruled!
5 The Age of Absolutism Collides with the Enlightenment They believed citizens could create a utopian society…a perfect society based on reason and natural lawThe intellectuals who pushed these new ideas were called PhilosophesThey were critics, economists, and reformers
6 The Philosophes Started by English thinkers of the 1600’s Thomas Hobbes and John LockeBoth are deeply affected by the events of the English Civil War between:Charles I and Parliament
7 Thomas Hobbes Ideas are in “Leviathan” (1651) Believed all humans had wicked and selfish tendenciesGovernments are necessary for law and orderMust give up rights to a strong rulers in exchange for law and orderThis agreement is the Social ContractAbsolute Monarchs were necessary
9 John Locke Had a more positive view of human nature Humans had the ability to rule themselvesFavored self-government over absolute ruleBelieved people born free and equal with 3 Natural Rights:Life, Liberty, and Property
10 Sole purpose of government to protect these rights If government fails, citizens have the right to overthrow the governmentPower of the government comes from the consent of the governedInspired by the Glorious Revolution of 1689Thought James II deserved to be overthrown!Book “Two Treatises on Government”
11 Paris becomes the hip place to discuss these subversive ideas: SalonsWealthy patrons who despised the king of FranceUnhappy citizens hungry for new ideas
12 VoltairePen name, real name Francois Marie Arouet, famous essay, “Candide”(1759)Used satire against opponentsTargeted clergy, aristocracy, and kingSpent time in prison and exiledChampioned free speech, press, assembly, and religion
13 “I disagree with what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it”
14 Baron de Montesquieu An aristocrat and a lawyer Studied the Ancient Roman RepublicAdmired the British systemSupported 3 branches of govenrmentExecutive, Legislative, JudiciaryChecks and Balances and Separation of Power“On the Spirit of the Laws” (1748)
16 Jean Jacques Rousseau Son of a poor watchmaker/nobility abolished Believed all people were equalSupported true democracyHumans are good, but the society in which they live is corrupt and badSubmission to the authority of the will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others“The Social Contract” (1762)Grand-daddy of all subversive thinkers:His writings inspire communism/socialism
17 “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains”
18 Cesare Beccaria Italian philosophe “On Crimes and Punishment” (1764) Criticized common abuses of justiceAbolish torture of prisonersCruel and unusual punishmentSpeedy trialPunishment should be based on the crimeAbolish capital punishment
19 Adam Smith Free markets…no government interference Laissez-faire CapitalismScottish economist“The Wealth of Nations”
21 Adam Smith QuoteThe statesman who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention, but assume an authority which could safely be trusted, not only to no single person, but to no council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it.
22 It is not by augmenting the capital of the country, but by rendering a greater part of that capital active and productive than would otherwise be so, that the most judicious operations of banking can increase the industry of the country.
23 Mary Wollstonecraft “ A Vindication of the Rights of Women” (1792) Women need to be educated as well as men…it was the key to gaining freedomWomen should be able to pursue all occupationsWomen should participate in governmentShe died giving birth to daughter MaryHer daughter,Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, went on to write “Frankenstein”
24 Major Effects of the Enlightenment These radical writers challenged long-held traditionInspired reforms and revolutionsThe American Revolution (1776)Constitution and Bill of RightsThe French Revolution (1789)
25 Ptolemaic Theory-Wrong Ptolemaic UniverseEarth-centric (geo)contained the moon , planets and the fixed starsProved wrong by Copernicus and Galileo
27 Galileo Galileo turned his telescope to the skies and made a remarkable series of discoveries:– mountains on the moon,– four moons revolving around Jupiter,– sunspots.• Galileo’s observations come into conflict with the Vatican…forced to recantThe Starry Messenger
29 Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton-Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University, where he wrote his major work, “Principia”Three Laws of MotionIn mathematical terms, Newton explained that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
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