Presentation on theme: "January 7, 2011 How was the draft unfair and how did people react to the war? –Quiz on Section 2 (again) –Working Class War –African Americans and Women."— Presentation transcript:
January 7, 2011 How was the draft unfair and how did people react to the war? –Quiz on Section 2 (again) –Working Class War –African Americans and Women –The New Left and its Movement –Protest through Song Homework: Section 4 and prepare for guest speaker.
Think About: Is it ever okay to break the law? Are there some instances where it is okay to break the law?
Scenario Could a bank robber claim he stole as an act of protest against immoral bank practices?
Scenario A person decided that the government was spending citizen’s tax money incorrectly. Should that citizen be allowed to decide not to pay taxes?
Group Activity Read your paper. Discuss as a group. What should be done? Was this moral? Was this legal? Was this civil disobedience? Should it be allowed? Was the line of legality crossed?
What is your Civic Duty? What does it mean to be American? What is your responsibility in being American? What is your duty as an American Citizen? Should the country expect anything from you as its citizen? What is your Civic Duty to America?
A Manipulative Draft Most soldiers called to arms under the draft all males 18 to 26 had to sign up under Selective Service Act and were screened for battle Thousands found ways around the draft: –Medical exemptions from sympathetic doctors –Changed residences to stand before more lenient draft board –Joined National Guard or Coast Guard (deferred from Vietnam) –College deferment Left lower-class whites and minorities to fight Vietnam was working class war
African Americans in Vietnam Served in disproportionate numbers as ground combat troops Defense Department started draft lottery system to stop this in 1969 Martin Luther King, Jr. tried not speak against war to keep attention on Civil Rights 1967 – lashed out against the “cruel irony” of blacks dying for a country that treated them like second-class citizens Yet another factor that led to low soldier morale
Women Join the Ranks 10,000 served in Vietnam as nurses Thousands volunteered to the American Red Cross and the United Services Organization (USO) Youths began voicing protest of war
The New Left New Left – growing youth movement of 1960’s –Demanded changes in American society Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) – founded by Tom Hayden and Al Haber –Said large corporations and government had taken over America –Called for greater individual freedom Free Speech Movement –“American Machine” the nation’s faceless and powerful business and government institutions
Campus Activism Ideas of protest spread across campuses Students addresses: dress codes, curfews, dorm regulations, mandatory reserved officer training corps (ROTC) Vietnam gave students a reason to join together in protest –Believed the nation needed fundamental change
The Movement Grows April 1965 – SDS marched on Washington D.C. November 1965 – protest rally grew February 1966 – Johnson changed deferments for college students –Students must be in good academic standing for deferment –Campuses erupted in protest –SDS called for civil disobediance at Selective Service Centers and called for students to flee to Canada or Sweden
Youths opposed war: Belief that the conflict was a civil war that the U.S. had no business in Oppressive S.V. regime was no better than the communist regime U.S. could not police the entire globe War was draining American strength in other parts of the world Simply unjust and immoral
Movement grew beyond the Campuses: Returning veterans Folk singers
From Protest to Resistance Spring 1967 – half million protestors gathered in New York’s Central Park tossing draft cards in fire David Harris – spent 20 months in jail for refusing to serve Draft resistance continued until Johnson phased out the draft in the early 70s U.S. government accused more than 200,000 men of draft offenses and imprisoned nearly 4,000 resistors October 1967 – demonstration at Lincoln Memorial led to 30,000 locking arms and marching on the Pentagon –They were tear gassed and clubbed as they broke past police
War Divides a Nation Doves Opposed the war U.S. should withdraw Hawks U.S. should unleash more force to win the war 1967 – the majority supported the war Many unsure about the U.S. role and were shocked to see protestors publically criticize a war in which Americans were fighting and dying Most believed the protests were “acts of disloyalty” What about the families of those who died?
Johnson Remains Determined Attacked by both doves and hawks Johnson dismissive of both groups and their motives Continued policy of slow escalation End of 1967 – his policy and stalemate created turmoil within his administration –Defense Sec. McNamara resigns his position to become head of the World Bank –Felt it “didn’t add up”
Acts of Aggression What is an act of aggression? Elements to consider: –Intent/Accident –Human/nonhuman (animal,plants, or inanimate objects) –Fantasy/actual behavior –Effectiveness/ineffective (attempt to harm) –Obedience/enjoyment –Immediate harm/long range harm Look at the list as your group. –Was it an act of aggression (YES or NO)
1.Spider eats a fly 2.Soldier shoots his enemy on the front line 3.Warden executes a prisoner by turning on gas 4.Hungry men fight for a piece of bread 5.Man viciously kicks a dog 6.Boy kicks a car 7.Angry driver kicks his flat tire 8.Man mentally rehearses killing his wife 9.Small child kicks another small child while fighting over toys 10.Mother spanks her child 11.Mother locks her child in a closet as punishment 12.Principal shoves a student against the wall while breaking up a fight 13.A notorious gossip speaks badly of many people 14.A girl who hardly speaks cuts down those who fail to live up to her expectations 15.worker, known for sarcasm, verbally tears apart his boss to shreds 16.A woman daydreams about meeting her ex-boyfriend and slapping him in the face (with not expectation of doing it) 17.A teacher speaks badly of a student to the entire class 18.A teacher speaks badly of a co- worker to his entire class