The Haitian Revolution 1791 Haiti critical to France as a source of sugar—annexed in 1697 Population mostly non-white with large number of slaves Population divided by French Rev.-Rich whites opposed it, poorer whites and non-whites, esp. small planter class, favored it August, 1791 revolt began and pitted whites against mulattos, all of whom wanted to keep the black slaves under control French initially supported the black slaves and declared their freedom in 1793 to keep them from uniting with the Spanish, British involved against slaves Slave leaders, Toussaint l'Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines led revolution which turned into race war against better off mulattos, 10,000 killed Napoleon turned against new Haitian government-wanted absolute control of colonies-disapproved of Dessalines 1802 Napoleon Declared war on Haiti and sent his brother-in-law L'Ouverture captured and died in France, but Dessalines won over the French and declared indep. of Haiti in 1804 Dessalinles’authoritarian ways led to his assassination in 1806 and the beginning of uncertain political rule in Haiti
The French Revolution The French Revolution (1789) – Declaration of the Rights of Man-Liberty, Equality, Fraternity – Killed their monarchs, established constitutional monarchy – Set out to restructure their society to eliminate corporate privilege- restricted rights of the Church – Rise of Napoleon (1790s) Impact on French Revolution-made it more conservative Impact on Spain and Portugal—Invaded Spain and forced the king of Portugal to flee to Brazil in 1808 Impact on Latin America—caused regional groups to think about their relationship to Spain and Portugal and brought the monarchy to Rio de Janeiro
The Enlightenment and Three Revolutions that Shook the World The Enlightenment – Challenges to absolute monarchy-questioned the rights of rulers as well as the ruled – Beliefs in the equality of men The North American Revolution (1776) – First in hemisphere – Did not challenge racial inequality – U.S. revolutionaries supported and encouraged Latin American revolutionaries – US books and pamphlets about revolution (“Common Sense” by Thomas Paine) available in Latin American cities
Timeline 1791- Ceremony at Bois Caiman and the beginning of the slave revolt 1802- Napoleon sends expedition led by Leclerc to reclaim Haiti 1804- Haiti declared independent 1806- Dessalines is assassinated
Timeline Cont… 1825- Haiti pays a indemnity to France for recognition of independence
Slavery French master were extremely cruel to their slaves French master would have children with their slaves giving rise to the mulattos class Many slaves were tortured to death
Bois Caiman Voodoo ceremony that sparked the Haitian Revolution Presided over by Dutty Boukman a vodoo hungan Held on August 14, 1791
Toussaint Louverture Born on may 20 th 1743 Died April 8 th 1803 Leader in the Haitian Revolution First Leader of free Haiti
Jean-Jacques Dessalines Leader of independent Haiti A cruel tyrant Assassinated in 1806 After slaves were freed in revolution Dessalines brought back forms of slavery
Dessalines Cont… Tied Haitian peasants to land Expelled white French plantation owners Tried to settle differences between blacks and mulattos Christophe was Dessalines head military leader. Christophe later became king of northern Haiti.
Voodoo Voodoo is a combination of the native African religions imported by the slaves Voodoo was important to the Haitian slaves because it could describe Voodoo gave Haitians ideas of freedom through the Bois Caiman ceremony
Effects of The Revolution The Haitian Revolution left Haiti in poverty since the slaves were fighting wars there was no work done many of the large specialized farms were broken up into smaller plots of land Deep racial tensions were left in Haiti The white from the Haitian flag
Effects Cont… The Church was attacked by radical Haitians. Haiti was farther put into debt by borrowing heavily from other nations Haitian politics have remained violent and unstable
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