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Objective: Explain how the ideas from the Enlightenment impacted social, political, and economic systems and institutions. (Explain how the ideas from.

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Presentation on theme: "Objective: Explain how the ideas from the Enlightenment impacted social, political, and economic systems and institutions. (Explain how the ideas from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objective: Explain how the ideas from the Enlightenment impacted social, political, and economic systems and institutions. (Explain how the ideas from the Enlightenment changed government systems-Absolute Monarchy to Democracy) Political Thinkers

2 The works of Locke and Hobbes set the stage for later development.
During the 1700s in France, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Diderot, Beccaria, and Wollstonecraft carried the ideas of new government structures further. Although these men shared a desire to reform society, they differed in their views of what needed to be done. In France, Enlightenment thinkers were called philosophes, or philosophers. French Thinkers

3 Part 1 Voltaire

4 Published essays, plays, and works of fiction that reflected Enlightenment ideals
Believed in religious toleration and deism Deism is the belief that God made the universe and left it to be ruled by natural law Seeking social and political reform, Voltaire often used humor to attack the laws and customs of France Voltaire

5 His targets were the Roman Catholic Church, the powerful aristocracy, and the monarchy.
Often, Voltaire disguised his criticism in works of fiction. Not surprisingly, his writings got him in trouble with the government. During the course of his career, Voltaire was imprisoned in the Bastille and exiled from his native France for many years. Voltaire

6 Voltaire Tolerance Reason Freedom of religious belief
Freedom of speech “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it” Voltaire

7 Montesquieu

8 Studied governments of ancient Rome and closely examined the contemporary governments of France and England Concluded England had the best government because it balanced the powers of competing groups in society The English government divided power among three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Separation of Powers Montesquieu

9 Each branch had control the others through a system of checks and balances.
Asserted a government with divided powers was a government of limited powers. A government of limited powers was less likely to violate the natural rights of its citizens. Later became basis for United States Constitution Montesquieu

10 Part 2 Rousseau

11 Rousseau Individual Freedom
Civilization corrupted peoples’ natural goodness “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Only good government was one freely formed by the people and guided by the ‘general will’ of society—a direct democracy Under such a government, people agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good Rousseau

12 Social Contract: it was an agreement among free individuals to create a society and a government
Legitimate government came from the consent of the governed (Like Locke) Inspired many leaders of the French Revolution Rousseau

13 Diderot

14 Helped spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe and the American colonies with his multivolume Encyclopedia The Encyclopedia included articles written by scholars, philosophers, and scientists. Hoped this huge work would summarize all theoretical and actual knowledge Diderot

15 Goal in editing the Encyclopedia was to change the way people thought
Many articles criticized the Roman Catholic Church and supported religious toleration (freedom) Other articles advanced the Enlightenment idea of social reform Diderot

16 The Roman Catholic Church and the French government condemned the Encyclopedia and tried to censor it The church did not like challenges to its authority The monarchy did not like radical new ideas about government and the rights of the governed (people or citizens) Even so, approximately 20,000 copies of the Encyclopedia (a very large number for that time) were printed and distributed Diderot

17 Beccaria

18 Beccaria Promotes criminal justice Italian
Believed laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes Regularly criticized common abuses of justice Including: torturing witnesses and suspects, irregular proceedings in trials, and punishments that were arbitrary or cruel Beccaria

19 Argued that a person accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial, and that torture should never be used The degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime Believed capital punishment should be abolished Beccaria

20 Beccaria based his ideas about justice on the principle that governments should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people His ideas influenced criminal law reformers in Europe and North America 8th Amendment-outlaws unusual and cruel punishment Beccaria

21 Wollstonecraft

22 Philosophes or philosophers (Enlightenment thinkers) often took traditional view of women
Rousseau, for example, developed many progressive ideas about education However, he believed that a girl’s education should mainly teach her how to be a helpful wife and mother Other male social critics scolded women for reading novels because they thought it encourage idleness and wickedness Still, some male writers argued for more education for women and for women’s equality in marriage Wollstonecraft

23 Disagreed with Rousseau that women’s education should be secondary to men’s
Need education to become virtuous (moral) and useful Urged women to enter the male-dominated fields of medicine and politics Wollstonecraft

24 Other women made important contributions to the Enlightenment in other ways: In Paris and other European cities, wealthy women helped spread Enlightenment ideas through social gatherings called salons Wollstonecraft

25 Legacy of the Enlightenment
Belief in Progress-new discoveries in science, human reason could solve social problems, reformers urged an end to slavery and argued for greater social equality, as well as a more democratic style of government Legacy of the Enlightenment

26 Legacy of the Enlightenment
A more secular outlook-non-religious People began to question openly their religious beliefs and the teachings of the church Legacy of the Enlightenment

27 Legacy of the Enlightenment
Importance of the Individual-the rise of individualism Looked to themselves for guidance Use your own ability to reason in order to judge what was right or wrong Emphasized the importance of the individual in society Government, they argued, was formed by individuals to promote their welfare Legacy of the Enlightenment

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