2Ernest James Gaines Born January 15, 1933 By the age of 9 was earning 50 cents a day digging potatoes.Raised by his crippled aunt.first 6 years of schooling were in plantation churchGoogle Images
3Had 9 brothers and 2 sisters 5th generation of sharecropper slave in his familyCould only go to school for 5 or 6 months1957-Moves to San Francisco and earns degree in literature .1996- spent a full semester as a visiting professor at the University of Rennes in France
4Wrote his first novel at 17 while babysitting. Catherine Carmier. 1856-The turtles (first short story)A Lesson Before Dying- National Book Critics Circle Award1963- The Sky is Gray (later added to his bloodline stories)WikipediaGoogle images
5Setting Southern Plantation in Louisiana Rural town right outside of Bayonne (Gaines's mythical city)Gray landscape and pervasive cold are central to the atmosphere of the story.In the time period of WWIIaction occurs in one dayGoogle Images
6Main CharactersJames- 8 year old narrator who observes events he cannot comprehend, but must accept.Has a toothacheLife is not that of a normal child
7Octavia- (James’s mother) Trying to prepare her son for the harsh and cruel life of a black man in this time period.represents a typical black woman in this time trying to do what is best for the family.
8Major Events The decision to go to town for James’s decaying tooth After being turned away from the dentist office, the long walk to the “back of town” through the freezing cold where black people were only allowed to eat.The invitation to come inside an old woman’s store to get out of the cold and keep warm.The fact Octavia won’t accept free food and the old woman’s act of kindness.
9The walk back to the dentist after leaving the woman’s store. Octavia tells her son “You not a bum, you a man.”Parallel to an event from Gaines childhood
10Strength and Endurance ThemesStrength and EnduranceThe dignity of both women is shown.“The author, while acknowledging the tragedy of segregation, transcends oversimplification of racial issues to find hope in the strong bonds of pride and empathy in the brief encounter between the two women.” - Fiero
11Sons searching for fathers ThemesSons searching for fathersGaines own father was away fighting during WWII.This theme is included is often used in Gaines work.
12Works Cited"Ernest J. Gaines." Wikipedia , 29 April Web. 12 May <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_J._Gaines>.McDonald, Walter . ""You not a Bum, You a Man": Ernest J. Gaines." Jstor. St. Louis University , Web. 19 May 2011.Fiero, John W., and Marjorie J. Podolsky. "The Sky Is Gray." Magill’s Survey of American Literature, Revised Edition (2006): 1. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 22 May 2011.Reuben, Paul P. "Chapter 10: Ernest J. Gaines." PAL: Perspectives in American Literature- A Research and Reference Guide. URL:http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap10/gaines.html 22 May 2011