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Expanding the Effectiveness of School-Wide PBIS Implementation 2010 National PBIS Leadership Forum October 14-15, 2010 Chicago, Illinois Hill M. Walker,

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Presentation on theme: "Expanding the Effectiveness of School-Wide PBIS Implementation 2010 National PBIS Leadership Forum October 14-15, 2010 Chicago, Illinois Hill M. Walker,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Expanding the Effectiveness of School-Wide PBIS Implementation 2010 National PBIS Leadership Forum October 14-15, 2010 Chicago, Illinois Hill M. Walker, Ph.D. Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior, University of Oregon


3 Theme of Keynote: PBIS as an Exemplar of Evidence-Based Practice in Schools: Past, Present, Future Creates a Positive School Culture Engages All School Staff in Meeting Student Needs Increases the Holding Power of the School


5 Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice Time lag between the availability of an EBP and its adoption and effective use on a broad scale within routine contexts can be vast. -Cure for scurvy (Rogers, 1995). - Time lag in mental health is estimated to be 20 years. -Time lag is at least this long in K-12 education. Typical barriers to adoption -Cost -Difficulty accessing -Philosophical objections -Resistance to change -Innovation takes too much time and effort

6 Factors Driving Interest in EBPs National Legislation – No Child Left Behind – Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004 Reauthorization) Court Mandates Threats to School Security

7 Factors (Continued) Public Demand for Return on Investments in Federal Research Growing Interest in Prevention – Especially as an Alternative to Specialized Accommodation and Special Education Development of Quality Standards by Professional Organizations

8 Where are Schools Re: New Evidence-Based Practices? Until the past decade, schools have been slow to adopt proven or promising EBPs. Impact 1.The vast majority of K-12 students have not accessed effective interventions. 2.Emerging pressures on educators to adopt and implement best and preferred practices that have a solid evidence base.

9 Development of Innovations in Better Serving At-Risk Students has Ramped Up Substantially in the Past Decade 1.3-tiered public health prevention model applied to school contexts 2.Advent of use of Response to Intervention approaches for screening, identification and treatment 3.Strong interest by psychologists in conducting school-based research on conduct disorders 4.Priority of adapting promising programs for routine usage in school practices



12 Aldous Huxley “The Single Greatest Tragedy of Science is the Cold-Blooded Slaying of a Beautiful Theory by an Ugly Fact.” – Randomized Control Trials are often the Cruel Means by Which this Tragedy Occurs.


14 What are the Origins of PBIS? Grows Out of the Knowledge Base and Behavioral Technology of Applied Behavior Analysis Applies the USPHS Model of Prevention to Schools (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) Adopts Policy Logic from Mental Health and Juvenile Justice




18 Outstanding Features of PBIS 3-Tiered heuristic provides a conceptual framework and a scaffold for a whole-school approach to behavior management Uses archival school records and disciplinary referrals that allow estimation of a school’s status and efficiency Applies the concept of continuous positive support to student behavior Addresses all school settings

19 What are the Factors that Make It Work? Consistent with the Priorities, Routines, Values and Operations of the School Context Is an Example of a Good Practice- Environment Fit PBIS Considers the School as a Dynamic System within a District and Community Context.

20 Factors (continued) PBIS Integrates-Coordinates Key Components that are Evidence-Based and Acceptable to Educators Strong focus on Implementation Fidelity that is Measured Regularly and Prompts Actions Allows Flexible Adaptation and Fine Tuning of PBIS Components

21 School Context Factors that Influence Educator Adoption of New Practices: – Fits seamlessly into ongoing school routines – Consistent with school and educator values – Universal versus targeted interventions – Solves a high priority problem or issue – Time and effort costs are reasonable – Teacher perceives s/he has the skills and resources to apply practice effectively

22 Efficacy Vs. Effectiveness (Schoenwald & Hoagwood, 2001) Efficacy – Intervention, practice or approach has been demonstrated to work under ideal conditions by their developers (e.g., under highly controlled, grant-funded conditions, with close supervision and monitoring of implementation fidelity). Effectiveness – Refers to demonstration of socially valid outcomes under normal conditions of usage in the target setting for which the intervention was developed. – Demonstrating effectiveness is far more difficult. – Many promising practices or programs fail to bridge the gap between efficacy and effectiveness.

23 R. Detrich (2008)

24 Why Has PBIS Been So Widely Accepted? Allows Schools to Respond to the Needs of All Students Promotes the Concept of Continuing, Positive Behavioral Support Carefully Defines Roles of Each PBIS Participant

25 Reasons (continued) PBIS Provides Well-Developed Training Materials Uses Checklists-Guidelines to Support User- Friendly Implementation – Atul Gawande, The Checklist Manifesto Allows Cost-Efficient Use of School Resources

26 Does PBIS Have a Role to Play in the Current Press for School Reform? PBIS Represents a Model of the Effective, Accountable School that is the Focus of School Improvement Efforts. PBIS Use of Discipline Referrals, the SET, and Regular Student Progress Monitoring are Essential for Improving Schools. To Solidify its Role, PBIS Needs to be a Part of ESEA and IDEA Reauthorizations.

27 What are the Challenges Facing PBIS in the Next Decade? Develop a Participant and Advocacy Role for PBIS Involving Families Continue Focus on Innovation that Preserves the Dynamic Nature of PBIS Re-Commit to High Quality PBIS Implementation and Its Assessment

28 Challenges (continued) Continue Extending the Reach of PBIS to Diverse Populations, Contexts and Problems Document the Cultural Responsiveness and Relevance of PBIS Show that Sustained PBIS Improves Student Achievement as well as School Behavior

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