Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT ROME. ROME’S BEGINNINGS The Capitoline Wolf sculpture depicts a she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, Rome's legendary founders. Now a symbol of."— Presentation transcript:
ROME’S BEGINNINGS The Capitoline Wolf sculpture depicts a she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, Rome's legendary founders. Now a symbol of Rome.
Legends Much of Rome’s early history comes from legends. The legends may not be totally accurate but are useful in giving the qualities and values the early Romans admired.
Romulus Founder of Rome in 753 BCE First of seven kings Started Rome’s first army and government
Numa Pompilius Rome’s second king Brought peace to Rome Founded Rome’s religion
Etruscans Rome’s powerful neighbors to the north from Etruria Were wealthy traders Controlled Rome from 575 – 509 BCE Gave the Romans their alphabet and the “arch” Rome becomes a walled city with paved roads Built Circus Maximus, Temple of Jupiter, Cloaca Maxima
Tarquin the Proud Seventh and last king Was cruel and terrorized his people Ignored the Senate 509 BCE Romans rebel and send him into exile
GEOGRAPHY of ROME
1)Rome was a city-state in Italy 2)Rome’s climate is a Mediterranean climate with summers being hot and dry and winters being wet and mild
3) known as Latins, spoke Latin, were herders and farmers, harvested wheat, grapes, and olives
4) Etruscan city-states were to the north of Rome and south of Rome were Greek colonies
5)Built on hills – made it hard to attack On Tiber River – transportation route, resources 15 miles from the sea – safe from others’ navies and storms Center of Italy – could easily get to other places in Italy and in the Mediterranean
Mare Nostrum means “our sea” – eventually Rome controls all of the lands around the Mediterranean Sea
THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
PATRICIANS The upper class – wealthy landowners Very small group – 5% of the population Chose the king’s advisors Controlled the most valuable land, held the key military and religious offices PLEBEIANS The lower class – peasants, laborers, artisans, shopkeepers Very large group – 95% of the population Very few privileges and say Paid most of the taxes and served in the army.
A Republic form of government’s purpose is to serve the people. It was established in Rome when the Patricians overthrew the last monarch/king Tarquin the Proud because King Tarquin wanted more power and was cruel. The Conflict of the Orders is when the Plebeians demanded more political rights because the Patricians were controlling almost everything since Tarquin’s removal.
Some Major Differences Between the Patricians and the Plebeians Patricians could only be consuls or senators, they made and interpreted the laws, small group, wealthy, etc. Plebeians paid the heavy taxes, were the soldiers, had no political powers, were the labor force, large group
The conflict between the Plebeians and the Patricians was resolved over time by the Plebeians would leave Rome and refuse to work or serve in the military and the Patricians would compromise with the Plebeians by giving them some power and say in the government each time this happened.
Rights gained by the Plebeians over the years: Tribunes of the Plebs to represent their interests to the Senate Council of Plebs that could make laws only about themselves All laws were written down – The Twelve Tables One consul had to be a plebeian – in this way it was possible for a plebeian to become a senator Eventually could make laws that everyone (patricians and plebeians) must obey/follow
The Roman Republic
CONSULS One patrician and one plebeian Head/leaders of the Republic Run the day to day affairs of Rome and command its army
SENATORS Three hundred patricians and ex-plebeian consuls They can make and veto laws about everyone Advised the consuls
Tribunes of the Plebs Ten plebeians who represent plebeian interests to the senate Advised the consuls They can make and veto laws about everyone
Citizens Assemblies Made up of all adult male Roman citizens Nominated people to be the consuls, to be members of the senate, and to be a Tribunes of the Plebs Approved or rejected all new laws
The Punic Wars
Conquest Goes Well
1) took great pride in their Republic and defended it 2) treated conquered groups as allies 3) the Roman army was disciplined and experienced 4) military success was greatly valued and admired by Romans 5) winning wars was a great source of wealth to the Romans – land, valuables, slaves, etc.
Trouble at Home
1) farmers would be gone a long time fighting 2) wealthy were controlling all of the land 3) there were many poor and unemployed people in Rome 4) Roman leaders quarreled and, at times, killed one another 5) the slaves rebelled
Fall of the Roman Republic
CAUSE Rapid expansion of the Roman Empire EFFECT Gap between the rich and poor grows
CAUSE Greedy, dishonest leaders EFFECT The poor felt no loyalty to the Roman government who was keeping them poor
CAUSE The poor felt no loyalty to the Roman government who was keeping them poor EFFECT Conflicts between rich and poor people grow
CAUSE Professional soldiers who were poor citizens and only made money if they won a battle EFFECT Soldiers only loyal to the generals who paid them
CAUSE Power hungry generals fight one another for control of government EFFECT Caesar’s rivals fear he is becoming too powerful and declare him a public enemy
CAUSE Caesar crosses the Rubicon River and brings his army with him to Rome EFFECT Civil War breaks out for three years
CAUSE Caesar defeats Pompey and declares himself dictator EFFECT This ends the Republican system of government in Rome