2 ROME’S BEGINNINGSThe Capitoline Wolf sculpture depicts a she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, Rome's legendary founders. Now a symbol of Rome.
3 LegendsMuch of Rome’s early history comes from legends. The legends may not be totally accurate but are useful in giving the qualities and values the early Romans admired.
4 Romulus Founder of Rome in 753 BCE First of seven kings Started Rome’s first army and government
5 Numa Pompilius Rome’s second king Brought peace to Rome Founded Rome’s religion
6 Etruscans Rome’s powerful neighbors to the north from Etruria Were wealthy tradersControlled Rome from 575 – 509 BCEGave the Romans their alphabet and the “arch”Rome becomes a walled city with paved roadsBuilt Circus Maximus, Temple of Jupiter, Cloaca Maxima
7 Tarquin the Proud Seventh and last king Was cruel and terrorized his peopleIgnored the Senate509 BCE Romans rebel and send him into exile
10 Rome was a city-state in Italy 2)Rome’s climate is a Mediterranean climate with summers being hot and dry and winters being wet and mild
11 3) known as Latins, spoke Latin, were herders and farmers, harvested wheat, grapes, and olives
12 4) Etruscan city-states were to the north of Rome and south of Rome were Greek colonies
13 Built on hills – made it hard to attack On Tiber River – transportation route, resources15 miles from the sea – safe from others’ navies and stormsCenter of Italy – could easily get to other places in Italy and in the Mediterranean
14 Mare Nostrum means “our sea” – eventually Rome controls all of the lands around the Mediterranean Sea
16 PATRICIANSThe upper class – wealthy landownersVery small group – 5% of the populationChose the king’s advisorsControlled the most valuable land, held the key military and religious officesPLEBEIANSThe lower class – peasants, laborers, artisans, shopkeepersVery large group – 95% of the populationVery few privileges and sayPaid most of the taxes and served in the army.
17 A Republic form of government’s purpose is to serve the people A Republic form of government’s purpose is to serve the people. It was established in Rome when the Patricians overthrew the last monarch/king Tarquin the Proud because King Tarquin wanted more power and was cruel.The Conflict of the Orders is when the Plebeians demanded more political rights because the Patricians were controlling almost everything since Tarquin’s removal.
18 Some Major Differences Between the Patricians and the Plebeians Patricians could only be consuls or senators, they made and interpreted the laws, small group, wealthy, etc.Plebeians paid the heavy taxes, were the soldiers, had no political powers, were the labor force, large group
19 The conflict between the Plebeians and the Patricians was resolved over time by the Plebeians would leave Rome and refuse to work or serve in the military and the Patricians would compromise with the Plebeians by giving them some power and say in the government each time this happened.
20 Rights gained by the Plebeians over the years: Tribunes of the Plebs to represent their interests to the SenateCouncil of Plebs that could make laws only about themselvesAll laws were written down – The Twelve TablesOne consul had to be a plebeian – in this way it was possible for a plebeian to become a senatorEventually could make laws that everyone (patricians and plebeians) must obey/follow
30 took great pride in their Republic and defended ittreated conquered groups as alliesthe Roman army was disciplined andexperiencedmilitary success was greatly valued andadmired by Romanswinning wars was a great source of wealthto the Romans – land, valuables, slaves, etc.
32 farmers would be gone a long time fighting wealthy were controlling all of the landthere were many poor and unemployed peoplein RomeRoman leaders quarreled and, at times, killedone another5) the slaves rebelled