Sargon conquers all of Mesopotamia and sets up the world’s first empire. Conflict weakens Sumer’s city- states and they are attacked.
I. Why Were River Valleys Important? A. Good farming made it easy to feed large numbers of people. B. Rivers made it easier to develop trade. II. The Rise of Sumer A. The earliest known civilization located on a flat plain between the Tigris River and Euphrates River. B. Flooding left rich soil for farming and led to development of irrigation.
III. What Were City-States? A. Isolation of cities led to the develop- ment of separate city-states that had their own independent government. B. Sumerian city-states often went to war against each other. IV. Gods and Rulers A. Sumerians believed in many gods. B. The priests and priestesses of the grand temple, or ziggurat, were very powerful.
V. What Was Life Like in Sumer? A. Most people lived in small mud-brick houses and farmed. Some were artisans and traders. B. People were divided into three social classes.
How did Mesopotamian control of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers benefit their society? They built irrigation systems to control floods and to provide water to raise crops to feed a growing population.
Archaeologists learn about a society from its artifacts, man- made items. Technology is improvements and inventions to better life, and make tasks in life easier and possible.
How did the use of mathematics benefit the Sumerians? Sumerians used geometry to measure fields and put up buildings; they developed a number system based on 60, which led to the 60- minute hour and the 360-degree circle.
1. Sumeria was conquered by the ____. Their king, ____, set up the world’s first ____. Akkadians Sargon empire 2. The Babylonian king ____ is best known for his collection of ____. While some of his laws seem cruel, they were an important step toward a fair system of ____. Hammurabi laws justice
Why was Sargon’s empire important? It was the first empire conquering all of Mesopotamia and lasting more than 200 years.
Why did civilization in Mesopotamia begin in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers? *Good farming feed many people *Traveling along the waterways was easier and increased trading of goods *Exchange of ideas *Cities developed and became centers of civilizations
How did the Sumerians contribute to later peoples? *invented writing *produced works of literature *developed irrigation systems, wagon wheels, the plow, sailboats, mathematical ideas, calendar *studied the planet and stars
Why did the Sumerian city-states lose power? Conflicts between city-states weakened Sumeria, making it vulnerable to invaders. Sargon eventually conquered Mesopotamia for this reason.