Presentation on theme: "The Marian Restoration Religion and Religious Change, c.1470-1558."— Presentation transcript:
The Marian Restoration Religion and Religious Change, c.1470-1558
‘Restoration’ or ‘Reformation’? Restoration?Reformation? Does ‘Catholicism’ necessarily mean ‘backwards’ or ‘reversal’? Which Catholicism? Pre-Reformation Church not a fixed entity Strength in vibrancy/ capacity to house plurality of views Liturgy ever-evolving Just negate EdVI; or HVIII too? ◦ Difficult political issues: 20 years into the break with Rome ◦ Legitimacy of own father/brother/Tudor regime. ◦ Which point in Henry’s reign return to? Pre-1532? 1532? 1543? To what extent involved in/touched by the Counter Reformation? Reformist currents picking up pace in Europe for a third of a century Not simply a ‘Protestant’ event Seen throughout course that terms ‘Prot’/ ‘Cath’ only becoming something resembling stable towards the end of EdVI’s reign. All reforming action occurred in context of Christian Humanism, recognised itself as ‘Catholic’.
Historiography Traditional: an aberration Revisionist: surprisingly successful Englishness = Protestant; Protestant = Progress; Progress was the purpose of History; therefore the Reformation’s success was inevitable/ liberating. Mary’s attempts to pull the reign back to ‘Popish’ tyranny ill-advised and doomed to fail. Moment of reunion with RC passed – Mary’s policies ill-advised and clumsily enacted. Numerous problems: ◦ Mary: (mad and cruel) ◦ Bishops: (inept and cruel) ◦ Cardinal Pole: (old, inept and cruel) ◦ Organised opposition in Parliament: (possibly Protestant and therefore civilised and sensible bulwarks against tyranny). ◦ All part of an anti-Catholic narrative which celebrated Reformation as liberation from tyranny – typified by Foxe, part of national identity for centuries. Mid Tudor Crisis? Duffy, Loades, Wooding, Freeman, Wizeman, Whitelock, Richards. Catholicism popular: ◦ Tied to the presentation of LMC as ‘vibrant’ Restoration in the parishes largely successful: ◦ Despite significant problems (finance) Not simply bring back the past: ◦ Regime that had to plan for the future. ◦ Like EdVI – NO-ONE KNEW THAT MARY WAS GOING TO DIE ◦ Needed a plan going forward. ◦ Significant changes to the liturgy of the Church: if Catholicism ever ‘a cult of the living in the service of the dead’, certainly was not by 1558. Duffy: not just in-tune with the rumblings of Counter Reformation, actually a pre-cursor for it. If lived longer, would have been successful.
Reign with most current active research – sense that genuinely new things to say: ◦Duffy/ Loades/ Wooding – shining remarkably positive light on Mary’s Church and its achievements. ◦Cannot understand the reign without recourse to politics – story arguably a little different there. ◦Tricky – and emotive – issue of the burnings still problematic ◦Tricky – and emotive – issue of the burnings still problematic. A ‘hinge’ of the C16th: ◦Decide whether England’s Reformation completed or not; or point at which a genuine Counter Reformation could have occurred in England.
1553: Problems She was a she: ◦Ist Queen – no-one was expecting her to rule, because no-one was expecting Edward to die a) young; b) heirless. ◦Problem of succession. Need an heir, therefore need a husband. Who will that be, and how ensure not a king? ◦Foreign power? Xenophobia; difficult balancing act in Europe. ◦English noble? Problem of instability, patronage. Emerging resistance theory: ◦How resist a monarch? ◦Saw last lecture: not solidified yet, but would be over the course of the reign. ◦Only a handful of Prot thinkers – but ideas hard to kill. Jane Grey: ◦Essentially come to the throne after deposing a monarch. EdVI’s ‘Device For The Succession’ with Northumberland Jane supported by political establishment – history could have been very different. Very strong argument’s to Jane’s legitimacy on grounds of Edward’s nominating the succession and Mary’s illegitimacy (Eric Ives) Was this a massive vote in favour of Tudor succession, rather than Catholicism? a de facto elected monarchy ◦Only hammer home how precarious the Tudor regime was – in essence, a de facto elected monarchy which ruled by the people’s consent. What role was the Pope going to play in all of this?
Key figures: Cardinal Reginald Pole ◦Significant part of the brains, energy and organisation behind Mary’s Church. ◦HVIII’s cousin – had made an international stand against the divorce/Royal Supremacy. ◦Earned him Cardinal’s hat; resulted in HVIII viciously executing most of his family for treason. ◦Intimately connected to the Counter Reformation since mid-1530s. ◦Part of a moderate wing of reformers, inspired by Christian Humanism and prepared to negotiate with Protestants (Regensburg 1541). ◦Clash with hard-core wing of the Church – Carrafa, newly elected Paul IV; believed Pole’s view on Justification heretical. ◦Left Mary’s Church in difficult position internationally Previous historians – meant untouched by CR Now, not the case – CR not Papal-led alone.
Stephen Gardiner ◦Bishop of Winchester. ◦Lord Chancellor. ◦Leading writer/ intellectual. ◦Thorn in the side of the evangelicals since HVIII’s reign – always a blockade en route to Protestantism. ◦Bitter rivalry with Cranmer escalated since 1532. ◦Major figure in initiating heresy laws (and therefore persecutions). ◦‘Wily Winchester’ – evangelical bête noir.
Edmund Bonner ◦Bishop of London ◦Swapped the position back-and-forth with Nicholas Ridley as denominational changes occurred. ◦Conservative since the days of HVIII; vehement enforcement of the Act of Six Articles (1539); Bishops who oversaw most of the burnings. ◦‘Bloody Bonner’ (Foxe).
‘Restoration’ or ‘Reformation’? ‘Supreme Head’Monasteries ◦Refused to use the title (even though effectively possessed the same powers). ◦Mary’s key aim was to unite England with Catholic Church (thus undoing the work of her father). ◦Two decades of anti-Papal propaganda. ◦Conservatives – uniting with the Pope a barrier against doctrinal deviation (Thomas More onwards) ◦Mary keen to restore to an extent. Gave some of the lands which the crown had taken back. But also continued to sell others (like HVIII & EdVI). 800 abbeys dissolved by HVIII; only 7 re- founded. ◦Huge problems – opposition in parliament because MPs the ones who had benefitted from the sale of land under the Tudors. ◦Not prepared to make moves towards return of Papal headship of the English church until lands safeguarded (meant no heresy laws, therefore no means of prosecuting Prots). ◦July 1554 – Papal brief on the issue rejected by Mary’s council; Pole secured a deal that worked for everyone in November. ◦After then, parliament prepared to repeal all religious legislation since 1529. ◦Change of Popes kept the issue alive in politics – Paul IV denounced alienation of Church property, made relations frosty.
‘Restoration’ or ‘Reformation’? PurgatoryThe Cult of Saints ◦Very few confraternities founded. ◦Obits and bede rolls less prominent in use ◦Intercession prayer for the dead declined – in some regions, only 15% of parishes used them. ◦‘Cult of the living in the service of the dead’? ◦Rupture in belief – even if not supported it, must have had an impact. ◦Pre-Ref shrines/pilgrimage centres not revived. ◦Images of Christ and Virgin restored at parish level, but saints much less so – decline of local cults (mainstay of LMC) ◦Decline of side-altars for saints/guilds – few masses for splinter groups (unlike LMC) ◦Read as success of evangelism – reformed Catholicism actually grow out of Prot? ◦Ultimately – a more Christ-centred style of devotion.
Positives: PropagandaThe Bishops ◦Prot usually seen as ‘the religion of the Word’ – Mary’s Church now understood to be very effective: a) in terms of propaganda; b) in the provision of religious material for laity; c) use of Latin propaganda to win international war. ◦Miles Huggarde particularly important. ◦Preaching – far more effective than previously understood. Pole’s CH of 1520s/30s previously thought to be out-of-date – more interested in sacraments/ceremonies than evangelical fervour. Rejected Ignatius Loyolla’s offer of Jesuits in 1555. ◦Pole needed effective leadership ◦Rapid purgation of Bishops by Mary ◦Much new blood – many engaged in preaching etc: Thomas Watson (Lincoln); Richard Pate (Worcester – had been at Trent). ◦All declined places in the Elizabethan Church – men of conviction.
The Mass ◦Centre-point of liturgy LMC; heightened under Mary. ◦Significant propaganda potential – tied Mary’s Church to her father’s, rendered Edward’s as the aberration. ◦Peace – in the absence of the Mass the CWealth fell apart. ◦What better demonstration of the verity of Christianity could there be than neighbourliness?
Counter Reformation? ◦Problem of definition – Catholic or Counter? ◦Had it even begun by this point – Trent not finalised until 1563. ◦Duffy/ Thomas Mayer – Pole actually ahead of the European curve of Catholic Reform. ◦1555 – Pole summoned a legatine synod to London (aim to reform the clergy). Bishops to undertake regular visitations. Measures to tackle absenteeism. New book of homilies; catechism; translation of the New Testament. Homilies written by Dominican Bartolomé Carranza (basis for that of Trent a few years later). Establish seminaries in every diocese to train priests. Little chance to succeed because of shortness of reign – but plans were there. Undercut many Protestant criticisms of LMC.
Impact: the Parish Had iconoclastic destruction of LMC gone too far to be pulled back; had evangelical ideas been too widely circulated to be reigned back in? Destruction much cheaper than restoration – a huge task to restore. ◦Not just the case of buying lots of stuff. ◦Physical changes to the building of the Church. Churchwarden’s accounts as a measure of how parishes responded (trace payments): ◦Some areas considerable resistance (because of Prot or because fed up with interference in the parish?) ◦Good records for diocese of Bath & Wells, but can be read either way. ◦Even in staunch Prot areas like Canterbury almost every parish had an altar, vestments and Mass book by 1557. ◦Problem of obedience once again. Revisionists and traditionalists agree that Marian Church not LMC resuscitated. ◦How read this? ◦Sign of its weakness? ◦Or sign of reformist capacity?
Politics Persistent clashes with Parliament over money: ◦HVIII & EdVI impoverished the Church; reform cost money. ◦Attempts to restore First Fruits & 10ths; confiscation of property of Church exiles – clashes. ◦Revenues essentially not recouped until 1556. Paul IV (after May 1555): ◦dislike Pole; ◦dislike Spanish (Neopolitan – Spain were colonial overlords); ◦went to war with Phillip II; ◦recalled legates from Phillip’s lands (embarrassing for Pole); ◦Mary’s intervention to prevent extradition to Rome made her the Pope’s political enemy; delayed filling position of Bishops. War with France (at Phillip’s biding – traditional enemy). ◦Humiliating loss of Calais, January 1558.
Politics: marriage & martyrdom Marriage to Phillip – son of Emperor Charles II, soon to be ruler of the Netherlands and (in 1556) Spain. ◦Marriage treaty limited Phillip’s powers; excluded from throne should Mary die. ◦Opposition not just Protestant. Careful not to remember 1588 before it happened. ◦Gardiner (supported Earl of Devon as possible husband) ◦Universally unpopular, if not unexpected – Habsburgs were the traditional allies of the English against the French. War not seem like a wise decision (especially after recent campaigns in Scotland).
Wyatt: ◦Rumours of Spanish cruelties in the New World; and of the Inquisition. ◦Rebellion in January 1554 – only Sir Thomas Wyatt’s in Kent of any real threat, and troops actually made it to outskirts of London. Mary: public appearances roused resistance – mother of nation; marriage not harm commons. Was it just Elizabeth who could inspire? ◦Was this a ‘Protestant’ rebellion? Dickens and Thorp: yes. ◦ Mary listed Prot as a cause in her speeches (a ploy?) ◦ Several prominent Prot clerics involved – John Ponet (former Bishop of Winchester). ◦ Hindered Mary’s reformation because tied Catholicism with Spanish overlordship. Loades: no. ◦ Secular/political – no concrete evidence of a disproportionate Protestant involvement at elite or popular level. ◦Nothing could be proven against Elizabeth.