Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Nilofar Sakhi, Visiting Fellow National Endowment for Democracy March 8, 2007 Challenges Confronting the Women’s Movement in Afghanistan.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Nilofar Sakhi, Visiting Fellow National Endowment for Democracy March 8, 2007 Challenges Confronting the Women’s Movement in Afghanistan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nilofar Sakhi, Visiting Fellow National Endowment for Democracy March 8, 2007 Challenges Confronting the Women’s Movement in Afghanistan

2 Presentation Overview I. Afghanistan: A Political Overview (1979–present) II. The Women’s Movement III. Periods of Change in Women’s Status (1920–present) (1920–present) IV. Challenges Confronting Afghan Women V. Concluding Recommendations

3

4 Political Overview (1979–present) 1979–86: Communist Regime 1979–86: Communist Regime 1992–96: Mujahidden Government 1992–96: Mujahidden Government 1994: Taliban militia emerge 1994: Taliban militia emerge 1996–2001: Taliban government 1996–2001: Taliban government 2001–present: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (with Hamid Karzai as president) 2001–present: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (with Hamid Karzai as president)

5 What Is the Afghan Women’s Movement? Women’s Associations: Women’s Associations: women’s councils (shuras)women’s councils (shuras) youth associationsyouth associations associations within universities and schoolsassociations within universities and schools Women’s NGOs and other networks Women’s NGOs and other networks Women’s Ministry Women’s Ministry Individuals: writers, poets, social activists Individuals: writers, poets, social activists

6 Composition of the Women’s Movement

7 Periods of Change in Women’s Status 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1920s–30s: First Era of Change

8 1920s: First Era Of Change Queen Surya of Afghanistan onward: Women’s issues are an integral part of “national construction” (nation-building) agendas 1920 onward: Women’s issues are an integral part of “national construction” (nation-building) agendas 1927: Queen Surya spearheads the establishment of Afghanistan’s first women’s organization, the Anjuman- I-Himayat-I-Niswan (Organization for Women’s Protection and Legal Rights) 1927: Queen Surya spearheads the establishment of Afghanistan’s first women’s organization, the Anjuman- I-Himayat-I-Niswan (Organization for Women’s Protection and Legal Rights) Women gain legal protections and enter the fields of education & politics Women gain legal protections and enter the fields of education & politics

9 Late 1920s and 1930s Introduction of income-generation programs Introduction of income-generation programs Introduction of cultural programs (including the emergence of “Miss Afghanistan”) Introduction of cultural programs (including the emergence of “Miss Afghanistan”)

10 Periods of Change in Women’s Status 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere

11 1940s–1950s: Advances in Economic Sphere Increase in women’s employment rate Increase in women’s employment rate

12 Periods of Change in Women’s Status 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change

13 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1964: Third constitution allows women to enter electoral politics 1964: Third constitution allows women to enter electoral politics 1967–68: Increase in women’s participation in education & politics 1967–68: Increase in women’s participation in education & politics

14 Periods of Change in Women’s Status 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1980s: Additional Advances 1980s: Additional Advances

15 1980s: Additional Advances Women are employed in significant numbers in the public and private sectors (universities, businesses, airlines, hospitals, cinema, police force, etc.).

16 Periods of Change in Women’s Status 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1980s: Additional Advances 1980s: Additional Advances 1990–94: Decline in Women’s Status 1990–94: Decline in Women’s Status

17 1990–1994: Decline in Women’s Status From 1992 onward, women are increasingly excluded from public service.

18 Periods of Change in Women’s Status 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1980s: Additional Advances 1980s: Additional Advances 1990–94: Decline in Women’s Status 1990–94: Decline in Women’s Status 1994–2001: Gender Apartheid 1994–2001: Gender Apartheid

19 1994–2001: Gender Apartheid Under the Taliban, women can only appear in public if they are dressed in a complete head-to-toe garment, with a mesh-covered opening for their eyes.

20 Periods of Change in Women’s Status 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1920s–30s: First Era of Change 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1940s–50s: Advances in Economic Sphere 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1960s–70s: Second Era of Change 1980s: Additional Advances 1980s: Additional Advances 1990–94: Decline in Women’s Status 1990–94: Decline in Women’s Status 1994–2001: Gender Apartheid 1994–2001: Gender Apartheid 2001–2007: Third Era of Change 2001–2007: Third Era of Change

21 2001–present: Third Era of Change Increase in women’s participation in socio-political sector Increase in women’s participation in socio-political sector International community focuses on Afghan women for the first time International community focuses on Afghan women for the first time

22 Women Participate in Livelihood, Education, and Media Programs

23 Community Mobilization Through Women’s Groups

24 Working Through Members of Local Government

25 A Wide Range of Campaigns A Wide Range of Campaigns

26 Challenges Facing Afghan Women The Core Issue The Core Issue Challenges in Security Challenges in Security Legal Challenges Legal Challenges Challenges in Reaching Rural Areas Challenges in Reaching Rural Areas Challenges in Capacity Building Challenges in Capacity Building Challenges in the Economic Sphere Challenges in the Economic Sphere

27 The Core Issue Political InstabilityLack of Law Enforcement Poverty Patriarchy Cruel Cultural Practices High Female Mortality Rate Domestic Violence against Women Self-Immolation

28 Security Challenges The continuing lack of security enormously constrains women’s participation in the rebuilding process The continuing lack of security enormously constrains women’s participation in the rebuilding process Security concerns lessen the number of women participating in politics Security concerns lessen the number of women participating in politics Most families don’t allow their women to work due to the lack of security Most families don’t allow their women to work due to the lack of security Women activists and teachers have been threatened and attacked in insecure regions Women activists and teachers have been threatened and attacked in insecure regions Insecurity slows down women’s activities Insecurity slows down women’s activities

29 Legal Challenges Lack of law enforcement for the prevention of violence against women Lack of law enforcement for the prevention of violence against women Patriarchal values and deeply conservative notions of gender roles of many powerful political-military factions inhibit women’s socio-political participation Patriarchal values and deeply conservative notions of gender roles of many powerful political-military factions inhibit women’s socio-political participation Police are not trained to be sensitive to domestic violence Police are not trained to be sensitive to domestic violence The court system does not protect women from cruel cultural practices (e.g., “baad”) The court system does not protect women from cruel cultural practices (e.g., “baad”) In remote areas of the country, most decisions are made through customary law—mostly jirga or the informal justice system In remote areas of the country, most decisions are made through customary law—mostly jirga or the informal justice system

30 Challenges in Reaching Rural Afghanistan Lack of strategies to expand women’s activities in rural Afghanistan Lack of strategies to expand women’s activities in rural Afghanistan The women’s movement has thus far been focused on: The women’s movement has thus far been focused on: Urban Afghanistan Urban Afghanistan The Elite The Elite Politically Active Women Politically Active Women

31 Challenges in Capacity Building Pr ograms focus exclusively on women and neglect the education of men concerning women’s rights Pr ograms focus exclusively on women and neglect the education of men concerning women’s rights Programs tend to be short-term Programs tend to be short-term Programs neglect rural women Programs neglect rural women Programs tend not to focus on professionalizing women’s groups: Programs tend not to focus on professionalizing women’s groups: Lack of management trainingLack of management training Lack of accountabilityLack of accountability

32 Challenges in Economic Sphere Lack of long-term programs promoting economic sustainability Lack of long-term programs promoting economic sustainability Lack of income-generating programs Lack of income-generating programs Fewer job opportunities for women (especially for rural women) Fewer job opportunities for women (especially for rural women)

33 Concluding Recommendations Establish visible security measures Establish visible security measures Reform the education curriculum, particularly textbooks Reform the education curriculum, particularly textbooks Advocate for women’s space in the mosque and religious institutions Advocate for women’s space in the mosque and religious institutions Establish family courts in provinces, with the autho- rity to investigate cases of violence against women Establish family courts in provinces, with the autho- rity to investigate cases of violence against women Create more job opportunities for women Create more job opportunities for women Establish long-term and income-generation projects Establish long-term and income-generation projects Expand women’s activities to rural Afghanistan Expand women’s activities to rural Afghanistan Include men in gender-sensitivity programs Include men in gender-sensitivity programs


Download ppt "Nilofar Sakhi, Visiting Fellow National Endowment for Democracy March 8, 2007 Challenges Confronting the Women’s Movement in Afghanistan."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google