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Prosocial and Antisocial Development. Role of Nature:  Identical twins show modest correlations in tendency to engage in prosocial acts  Most likely.

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Presentation on theme: "Prosocial and Antisocial Development. Role of Nature:  Identical twins show modest correlations in tendency to engage in prosocial acts  Most likely."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prosocial and Antisocial Development

2 Role of Nature:  Identical twins show modest correlations in tendency to engage in prosocial acts  Most likely due to differences in temperament  e.g. amount of negative emotion and regulation of emotion  e.g. Assertiveness  Again, a key difference in moral reasoning and moral action—e.g. how cognitive functioning and personality style (moral character) interact to influence behavior Individual Differences in Prosocial Behavior

3  Nurture (e.g. Parents influence in 3 main ways)  Modeling and communication of values  More imitation of those that have a positive relationship with  Discussions of consequences on person’s feelings not just indicating good/bad  Opportunities for prosocial activities “Snowball” effect: those that engage in prosocial feel better about themselves, others treat them more positively, thus engage in more prosocial behavior  Discipline and parenting style  Supportive and constructive parenting is related to higher prosocial behavior  Physical punishment, threats, and authoritarian parenting are related to lower sympathy and prosocial behavior  Physical rewards for prosocial behavior decrease motivation later for prosocial behavior if the reward is not present  Punishment for not using prosocial behavior leads the child to believe the reason for helping is to avoid own punishment

4 Antisocial Behavior Comes in many forms, degrees, many paths to it Poor parenting > child conduct problems > peer rejection + academic failure > deviant peer group > antisocial behavior “Poor parenting” can result from low SES, low education, unemployment, marital discord/divorce, etc. Amplifying effect = stressors greater for those who already have negative traits or poor social skills

5 Conduct Disorder 9% of males, 2 % of females under age 18 Basic rights of others are violated, social norms and rules violated Disturbance of conduct lasting at least 6 months during which 3 of the following have been present: Has stolen without confrontation of victim Ran away from home more than twice Often lies Deliberately engages in fire setting Often truant from school Broken into someone else care, house, etc. Cruel to animals Forced someone into sexual activity Initiates physical fights Used a weapon in more than one fight Stolen with confrontation of a victim Physically cruel to people

6 Antisocial Personality Disorder A personality disorder = enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, or thinking about world, exhibited in a range of contexts; inflexible and maladaptive (often recognizable by adolescence or earlier) Conduct disorder prior to age 15 and A pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior since age 15 including at least 4 of the following: Unable to sustain consistent work behavior Fails to conform to social norms; lawful behavior Irritable and aggressive Fails to honor financial obligations Impulsive No regard for the truth (lies, cons, uses aliases) Reckless regarding own and others’ safety If parent, lacks ability to function as responsible parent Has never sustained a monogamous relationship for more than a year Lacks remorse

7 ASPD: Bob Hare’s Descriptives Emotional/Interpersonal Problems Glib and superficial Egocentric Lack of remorse or guilt Lack of empathy Deceitful and manipulative Shallow emotions Social Problems Impulsive Poor behavior controls Need for excitement Lack of responsibility Early behavior problems

8 Antisocial Personality Disorder

9 Classic Inconsistency Continuity across development (5%) but at the same time: The majority of those with conduct disorders do not go on to develop ASPD There is a markedly higher rate of antisocial behaviour in teens (peeks at age 17, up to 70% of teens) (it may be normative?)

10 Equifinality Moffit’s (1993) Theory –Two paths: Life-Course Persistent –Starts early and continues into adulthood Adolescence-Limited –Starts and ends in adolescence

11 Life Course Persistent Factors that predispose us to ASPD –1. Genetics –2. Prenatal alcohol and drug abuse –3. Obstetrical complications  Resulting in neurological damages Neurological damages expressed in 3 ways: –Difficult temperament (cranky babies) –Deficits in verbal skills (expressive and receptive speech, reading and writing development) –Executive deficits (planning behaviours, shifting attention, checking the plan) Can be made worse with maladaptive home environments (e.g. harsh and unpredictable behaviour by parents, abusive, poor monitoring) [Note: Biological parents may share neurological consequences compounding the effect]

12 Life Course Persistent E.g. How these traits come together in ASB? –Verbal abilities Verbal deficits may lead to the child acting out more because they cannot articulate their needs appropriately Therefore, they elicit more negative feedback from caregivers –Difficult Temperment  Problems forming close attachments Happens early (first with parents) And other relationships across the lifespan Poor relationships (lack of empathy), choose antisocial mates –Executive Difficulties Lead to decreased academic success due to inability to plan, impulsive, poor attention Resulting in School failure, occupational failure, criminal behavior

13 Adolescence-Limited Kids who associate with antisocial peers may mimic the behaviour –This behaviour is seen as cool initially, but as they age, the rewards are seen differently (not so rewarding) –They will then shift their behaviour more prosocial behaviour (they grow out of it) ----------------------------- Life-course persistent –Rare – 5% –Inflexible –Has biological roots Environmentally influenced Adolescence Limited –Common –Adaptive? Flexible –has sociocultural roots (requires an antisocial role model they can mimic)

14 Evidence for 2 paths People who experience birth complications have higher rate of adult violent offending (Kandel & Mednick, 1991) Twin studies (Taylor, 2000) –Early onset---life-course (MZ > DZ) –Late onset—adolescence limited (MZ approximately equal to DZ) IQ Deficits –ASB ½ standard deviation below average IQ –PIQ > VIQ Even after accounting for SES & family adversity is accounted for Effortful attention (WISC-R ‘freedom from distraction’ is low for ASB Inhibitory problems (Go/No-Go), Working memory deficits in ASB Prefrontal cortex structural abnormalities


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