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The Alamo, & Massacre at Goliad. The Consultation A group of delegates met in San Felipe to decide the future of Texas 1)Debate Independence 2)Create.

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Presentation on theme: "The Alamo, & Massacre at Goliad. The Consultation A group of delegates met in San Felipe to decide the future of Texas 1)Debate Independence 2)Create."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Alamo, & Massacre at Goliad

2 The Consultation A group of delegates met in San Felipe to decide the future of Texas 1)Debate Independence 2)Create provisional government 3)Choose commissioners to send to United States 4)Address military matters November 4, 1835 The delegates elected Branch T. Archer president of the convention, and began to attend to the following business: Branch T. Archer

3 Debating Independence Pro-Peace Group Wanted the Constitution of 1824 restored Feared that declaring independence would cost them the support of the Tejanos Felt they were loyal Mexican citizens Pro-War Group: Argued that Texas should declare independence The Compromise Delegates pledged loyalty to Mexico Explained that they only used force to defend themselves Warned that if the Constitution of 1824 was not restored, Texas would declare independence

4 Provisional Government Created the General Council to help Smith and Robinson run the government Elected Henry Smith governor Elected James Robinson lieutenant governor

5 Negotiations with the Cherokee The Provisional government sent Sam Houston and an African-American man named William Goyens to make peace with the Cherokee Indians Because of their efforts, the Cherokee promised to remain neutral during the revolution

6 Commissioners to the United States Branch T. ArcherWilliam H. WhartonStephen F. Austin

7 Texas Military The General Counsel created the Texas Navy to protect the coast and to attack Mexican ships. Sam Houston was named commander-in-chief of the Texas Army

8 Meanwhile: To be continued ….. President Santa Anna and 6,000 Mexican soldiers marched north towards Texas, bent on revenge

9 The Mexican Army advances General José de Urrea approached from Matamoros towards Goliad By February 1836, Santa Anna was crossing the Rio Grande marching towards San Antonio

10 Sam Houston was alarmed by how unprepared the Texans were, and ordered the Alamo destroyed and its artillery removed. Houston sent Jim Bowie to San Antonio to evaluate the situation there.

11 In January 1836, Jim Bowie arrived at the Alamo with 25 men, and decided the Alamo should not be destroyed. Because of Bowie’s recommendation, Governor Smith ordered Lieutenant Colonel William B. Travis to raise a force and head to San Antonio. Col. Travis

12 A few days after Travis arrived, Davy Crockett arrived with a dozen volunteers from Tennessee. James Bonham soon followed with a volunteer force from Alabama.

13 William B. Travis was put in command of the Alamo in February 1836 Jim Bowie argued with Travis over control of the troops, but finally agreed to share command with him

14 The Battle of the Alamo 13 Days that forever changed the history of North America

15 The Alamo was built as a mission, not a fort. So the Texans had to work hard to build higher and thicker walls, add cannons, and add high fences made of stakes The Alamo needed about 1,000 soldiers to properly defend it, but would never have more than 200

16 Santa Anna’s army arrives On February 23, Alamo defenders were shocked to see the beginning of the Mexican force arriving in San Antonio On February 23, Alamo defenders were shocked to see the beginning of the Mexican force arriving in San Antonio Texans barely make it into the Alamo before the Mexican cavalry arrives in the city. Texans barely make it into the Alamo before the Mexican cavalry arrives in the city. Mexican forces quietly occupy San Antonio and begin surrounding the Alamo. Mexican forces quietly occupy San Antonio and begin surrounding the Alamo.

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18 Bowie and Travis Bowie estimated that 1,000 troops would be needed to defend the Alamo. Bowie estimated that 1,000 troops would be needed to defend the Alamo. They believed that holding the Alamo at any cost was vital to the future of Texas They believed that holding the Alamo at any cost was vital to the future of Texas The mission walls were incomplete, hampering the defense. The mission walls were incomplete, hampering the defense.

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20 Victory or Death Travis wrote several messages to the people of Texas and to the United States asking for assistance Travis wrote several messages to the people of Texas and to the United States asking for assistance Travis received little response to his pleas for aid because the Texas forces were poorly organized. Travis received little response to his pleas for aid because the Texas forces were poorly organized. On March 1, only 32 reinforcements arrived at the Alamo from Gonzales. On March 1, only 32 reinforcements arrived at the Alamo from Gonzales.

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22 James Bonham Lifelong friend of William Travis Was a great horseman Sent on several missions to get help from Texans around the Alamo Reportedly went to Goliad were Fannin refused to move Rode through the Mexican lines in order to get back into the Alamo He died defending the fort on March 6, 1836

23 Red Flag of Death Mexican buglers played throughout the night to keep the Alamo defenders unnerved. Mexican buglers played throughout the night to keep the Alamo defenders unnerved. The song they played, “Deguello” was the song of death, and let the defenders know they would all die if they fought The song they played, “Deguello” was the song of death, and let the defenders know they would all die if they fought

24 Facing Certain Death On March 5, Travis explained to his troops that remaining at the Alamo meant certain death. On March 5, Travis explained to his troops that remaining at the Alamo meant certain death. According to legend, he drew a line on the ground with his sword and invited those who wished to stay to cross the line. According to legend, he drew a line on the ground with his sword and invited those who wished to stay to cross the line. Almost 200 men decided to stay and fight for their beliefs. Almost 200 men decided to stay and fight for their beliefs.

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26 The Final Battle Begins The final assault began on the morning of March 6, 1836 at 5:30 A.M. The final assault began on the morning of March 6, 1836 at 5:30 A.M. Santa Anna had stopped the cannon fire the night before to allow the Texans to sleep, then interrupted their slumber with an early morning attack Santa Anna had stopped the cannon fire the night before to allow the Texans to sleep, then interrupted their slumber with an early morning attack An estimated 1,800 Mexican troops took part, attacking at four different points. An estimated 1,800 Mexican troops took part, attacking at four different points.

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28 The Bloody Battle The North wall fell first, where William Travis was killed early in the Fighting The North wall fell first, where William Travis was killed early in the Fighting The men retreated to the long barracks where the bloodiest of the fighting took place. The men retreated to the long barracks where the bloodiest of the fighting took place. Bowie was killed in his cot too sick to take part in the battle Bowie was killed in his cot too sick to take part in the battle

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33 The Alamo Falls The Mexican army turned the Texan cannons on the Texans and forced them toward the chapel. The Mexican army turned the Texan cannons on the Texans and forced them toward the chapel. The chapel was the last area to fall. By that time all but a few defenders were killed The chapel was the last area to fall. By that time all but a few defenders were killed According to Mexican sources about 7 men survived the fighting, including Davy Crockett. They were taken prisoner. According to Mexican sources about 7 men survived the fighting, including Davy Crockett. They were taken prisoner.

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35 Casualties All but a few of the 200 defenders of the Alamo are killed in battle. The prisoners are executed. All but a few of the 200 defenders of the Alamo are killed in battle. The prisoners are executed. Santa Anna reports 70 of his men killed, while reports claim as many as 400 men killed Santa Anna reports 70 of his men killed, while reports claim as many as 400 men killed Susanna Dickinson, wife of an Alamo defender and her infant daughter survive as well as Travis’ slave, Joe and a few others are allowed to go free. Susanna Dickinson, wife of an Alamo defender and her infant daughter survive as well as Travis’ slave, Joe and a few others are allowed to go free.

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37 Results Santa Anna, when asked about the battle claims, “it was but a small affair.” Santa Anna, when asked about the battle claims, “it was but a small affair.” However, Santa Anna lost around men, 300 injured, spent 2 weeks in San Antonio, and strengthened the will of Texans to fight However, Santa Anna lost around men, 300 injured, spent 2 weeks in San Antonio, and strengthened the will of Texans to fight

38 A Battle Cry for Victory The battle of the Alamo delayed Santa Anna for two weeks, to the advantage of Texans. The battle of the Alamo delayed Santa Anna for two weeks, to the advantage of Texans. Some people believe that Texas would not have won independence without the battle of the Alamo. Some people believe that Texas would not have won independence without the battle of the Alamo. The battle and the courage of the Texans at the Alamo made Texans more determined to win independence. The battle and the courage of the Texans at the Alamo made Texans more determined to win independence.

39 A Tribute to Texas Heroes Instead of discouraging the people of Texas, the loss of the Alamo inspired other Texans to carry on the struggle. Instead of discouraging the people of Texas, the loss of the Alamo inspired other Texans to carry on the struggle. Sam Houston’s army adopted the battle cry “Remember the Alamo!” Sam Houston’s army adopted the battle cry “Remember the Alamo!”

40 Texas Declares Independence The Convention of 1836 was held at Washington-on-the-Brazos to vote on Independence Some delegates were former members of the United States and Mexican Governments.

41 The vote for independence was unanimous Although two of the signers were Tejano, many of the declaration Tejanos opposed the declaration

42 A few days later, the delegates learned of the siege of the Alamo and wanted to leave to go to the aid of the Alamo defenders. Sam Houston convinced the delegates to stay because Texas needed a constitution to form a legitimate government.

43 The Texas Constitution was modeled after the United States Constitution and guaranteed: Freedom speech Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Right to trial by jury

44 But the constitution also legalized slavery, and required free blacks to petition Congress for permission to stay in Texas. Among those who had to make a petition was Samuel McCulloch Jr., the first Texan to shed blood in the Revolution.

45 Since Texas was at war and could not hold elections, an ad interim (temporary) government was installed until elections could be held.

46 PresidentVice-President David G. BurnetLorenzo de Zavala

47 Runaway Scrape Sam Houston left the convention and headed for San Antonio. The scouts found the Alamo survivors and brought them back to Gonzales where they told the story of the Alamo. In Gonzales, he heard rumors of the fall of the Alamo and sent scouts lead by “Deaf” Smith to find out what happened. Deaf Smith

48 Word came that Santa Anna was approaching Gonzales, so Houston ordered the town burned and took his army east. As the Texas army moved east, citizens also left their homes to escape Santa Anna. Sam Houston used the retreat to gain time to train his army, as well as to tire out the larger Mexican force chasing them.

49 The Battle of Coleto Creek and Massacre at Goliad Chapter 10 Section 3

50 The Goliad Campaign: Summary Troops from the army of Mexico defeated Texan forces in several clashes, and eventually massacred many of their prisoners of war. Troops from the army of Mexico defeated Texan forces in several clashes, and eventually massacred many of their prisoners of war. Effect: This spread outrage and resentment among the population of the developing Republic of Texas, as well as fear. Effect: This spread outrage and resentment among the population of the developing Republic of Texas, as well as fear.

51 Urrea Sweeps Northward to Refugio During the Alamo siege, the second unit of the Mexican army, under General José Urrea, advanced through South Texas. During the Alamo siege, the second unit of the Mexican army, under General José Urrea, advanced through South Texas. Urrea defeated and killed Texan soldiers at San Patricio, Refugio, Goliad and Victoria. Urrea defeated and killed Texan soldiers at San Patricio, Refugio, Goliad and Victoria.

52 James Fannin at Goliad Col. James Fannin was stationed at Presidio La Bahia at the town of Goliad. Col. James Fannin was stationed at Presidio La Bahia at the town of Goliad. Fannin had 450 men under his command, and had renamed the presidio Fort Defiance. Fannin had 450 men under his command, and had renamed the presidio Fort Defiance. William Travis had sent requests for Fannin to bring his men to the Alamo, but Fannin did not go. William Travis had sent requests for Fannin to bring his men to the Alamo, but Fannin did not go.

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54 Houston orders Fannin to retreat General Houston had ordered Fannin and his men to retreat from Goliad to the city of Victoria to meet with his army. General Houston had ordered Fannin and his men to retreat from Goliad to the city of Victoria to meet with his army. Fannin was indecisive on when or if to leave and waited too long before beginning the march to Victoria. Fannin was indecisive on when or if to leave and waited too long before beginning the march to Victoria.

55 Fannin Delays His Deaprture Fannin delayed several days before retreating from Goliad toward Victoria at Houston’s command. The delay hurt the Texan cause. Fannin delayed several days before retreating from Goliad toward Victoria at Houston’s command. The delay hurt the Texan cause. Once Fannin’s army began moving, the retreat was very slow. They were moving heavy cannon and a wagon broke down. Slowing them even more. Once Fannin’s army began moving, the retreat was very slow. They were moving heavy cannon and a wagon broke down. Slowing them even more. After only travelling a few miles from the fort, Fannin allowed the men to rest and eat. After only travelling a few miles from the fort, Fannin allowed the men to rest and eat.

56 Fannin Delays His Departure On March 19, while Fannin and his men rested in a field near Coleto Creek, Urrea’s troops surrounded them. On March 19, while Fannin and his men rested in a field near Coleto Creek, Urrea’s troops surrounded them. Fannin assembled his 300 troops in a square and three times drove back the Mexican army of 450 to 600 men. Fannin assembled his 300 troops in a square and three times drove back the Mexican army of 450 to 600 men.

57 Mexicans Texans

58 Advantages and Disadvantages The Mexican soliders had the advantage of fighting from the cover of the woods surrounding the prairie. The Mexican soliders had the advantage of fighting from the cover of the woods surrounding the prairie. The Texans were out in the open and had little cover and no water. This meant they had no way to cool their cannon and keep them from overheating. The Texans were out in the open and had little cover and no water. This meant they had no way to cool their cannon and keep them from overheating.

59 Texans Surrender On March 20, Fannin and his officers decided to surrender to General Urrea. On March 20, Fannin and his officers decided to surrender to General Urrea. Under the surrender General Fannin thought the men would be treated fairly. Under the surrender General Fannin thought the men would be treated fairly. General Urrea insisted that the surrender agreement was a “surrender at discretion.” General Urrea insisted that the surrender agreement was a “surrender at discretion.”

60 Texans Surrender The Texans are marched back to the fort at Goliad and imprisoned there. The Texans are marched back to the fort at Goliad and imprisoned there. Most of the men are confined in the church and did not receive water or food Most of the men are confined in the church and did not receive water or food

61 Urrea’s Instructions Urrea left Goliad and moved part of his army to Victoria, leaving Lt. Col. Portilla in command at Goliad. Urrea left Goliad and moved part of his army to Victoria, leaving Lt. Col. Portilla in command at Goliad. Urrea tells Portilla, Urrea tells Portilla, " Treat the prisoners with consideration, particularly their leader, Fannin, and to employ them in rebuilding Goliad." " Treat the prisoners with consideration, particularly their leader, Fannin, and to employ them in rebuilding Goliad."

62 Santa Anna’s “Cruel Necessity” Urrea wrote to Santa Anna, asking that he be allowed to spare the prisoners’ lives. Urrea wrote to Santa Anna, asking that he be allowed to spare the prisoners’ lives. Santa Anna ordered their immediate execution, calling them pirates, fearing that if he let the Texans go they would join others in rebellion. Santa Anna ordered their immediate execution, calling them pirates, fearing that if he let the Texans go they would join others in rebellion.

63 Santa Anna’s “Cruel Necessity” Santa Anna writes Portilla a letter instructing him to carry out the execution of the men. Santa Anna writes Portilla a letter instructing him to carry out the execution of the men. Portilla is furious, but as a good solider he follows his orders. Portilla is furious, but as a good solider he follows his orders.

64 Gen. SANTA ANNA to Lt. Col. Portilla: 26 Mar Order dated 23 Mar. “I am informed that there have been sent to you by General Urrea, 234 prisoners, taken in the Battle of Coletto on the 19 th and 20 th of Mar; and, as the supreme government has ordered that all foreigners be taken with arms in their hands, making war upon the nation, shall be treated as pirates, I have been surprised that the law of the supreme government has not been fully complied with…I therefore order that you should execute all those foreigners, who have yielded to the force of arms, having had the audacity to come and insult the Republic, to devastate with fire and sword, as has been the case in Goliad, causing vast detriment to our citizens; in a word, shedding the precious blood of Mexican citizens, whose only crime has been fidelity to their country. I trust that, in reply to this, you will inform me that public vengeance has been satisfied, by the punishment of such detestable delinquents. I transcribe the said decree of the government for your guidance, and, that you may strictly fulfill the same, in the zealous hope, that for the future, the provisions of the supreme government may not for a moment be infringed.” “I am informed that there have been sent to you by General Urrea, 234 prisoners, taken in the Battle of Coletto on the 19 th and 20 th of Mar; and, as the supreme government has ordered that all foreigners be taken with arms in their hands, making war upon the nation, shall be treated as pirates, I have been surprised that the law of the supreme government has not been fully complied with…I therefore order that you should execute all those foreigners, who have yielded to the force of arms, having had the audacity to come and insult the Republic, to devastate with fire and sword, as has been the case in Goliad, causing vast detriment to our citizens; in a word, shedding the precious blood of Mexican citizens, whose only crime has been fidelity to their country. I trust that, in reply to this, you will inform me that public vengeance has been satisfied, by the punishment of such detestable delinquents. I transcribe the said decree of the government for your guidance, and, that you may strictly fulfill the same, in the zealous hope, that for the future, the provisions of the supreme government may not for a moment be infringed.”

65 Lt. Col. Portilla to Gen. Urrea: 26 Mar From the Commandant at Goliad to Gen. Urrea. “In compliance with the definitive orders of his excellency the general-in- chief, which I received direct, at 4:00 AM tomorrow morning, the prisoners sent by you to this fortress will be shot. I have not ventured to execute the same sentence on those who surrendered to Col. Vara, at Copano, being unacquainted with the particular circumstances of their surrender; and I trust you will be pleased to take upon yourself to save my responsibility in this regard, by informing me what I am to do with them. “ “In compliance with the definitive orders of his excellency the general-in- chief, which I received direct, at 4:00 AM tomorrow morning, the prisoners sent by you to this fortress will be shot. I have not ventured to execute the same sentence on those who surrendered to Col. Vara, at Copano, being unacquainted with the particular circumstances of their surrender; and I trust you will be pleased to take upon yourself to save my responsibility in this regard, by informing me what I am to do with them. “

66 Lt. Col. Portilla to Gen. Urrea: 27 Mar “I feel much distressed at what has occurred here; a scene enacted in cold blood having passed before my eyes which has filled me with horror. All I can say is, that my duty as a soldier, and what I owe to my country, must be my guaranty.” “I feel much distressed at what has occurred here; a scene enacted in cold blood having passed before my eyes which has filled me with horror. All I can say is, that my duty as a soldier, and what I owe to my country, must be my guaranty.”

67 Santa Anna’s “Cruel Necessity” On Palm Sunday, March 27, the prisoners were marched out of the fort in 3 groups in different directions and were shot. On Palm Sunday, March 27, the prisoners were marched out of the fort in 3 groups in different directions and were shot. Many thought they were being taken out to work in the fields, or perhaps being released. Many thought they were being taken out to work in the fields, or perhaps being released. Some Mexican soldiers did not agree with Santa Anna’s decision and fired over the heads of the Texans, allowing them to escape into the nearby woods. Some Mexican soldiers did not agree with Santa Anna’s decision and fired over the heads of the Texans, allowing them to escape into the nearby woods.

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70 Gen. Urrea’s Reaction to the Massacre in His Journal: “It was painful to me, also, that so many brave men should thus be sacrificed, particularly the much esteemed and fearless Fannin. They doubtlessly surrendered confident that Mexican generosity would not make their surrender useless, for under any other circumstances they would have sold their lives dearly, fighting to the last. I had due regard for the motives that induced them to surrender, and for this reason I used my influence with the general-in-chief to save them, if possible, from being butchered, particularly Fannin. I obtained from His Excellency only a severe reply, repeating his previous order, doubtlessly dictated by cruel necessity.” “It was painful to me, also, that so many brave men should thus be sacrificed, particularly the much esteemed and fearless Fannin. They doubtlessly surrendered confident that Mexican generosity would not make their surrender useless, for under any other circumstances they would have sold their lives dearly, fighting to the last. I had due regard for the motives that induced them to surrender, and for this reason I used my influence with the general-in-chief to save them, if possible, from being butchered, particularly Fannin. I obtained from His Excellency only a severe reply, repeating his previous order, doubtlessly dictated by cruel necessity.”

71 Urrea’s Regret After the execution of the men at Goliad, Urrea writes in his journal: After the execution of the men at Goliad, Urrea writes in his journal: “I used my influence with the general-in- chief to save them, if possible, from being butchered, particularly Fannin. I obtained from His Excellency only a severe reply, repeating his previous order, doubtlessly dictated by cruel necessity.” “I used my influence with the general-in- chief to save them, if possible, from being butchered, particularly Fannin. I obtained from His Excellency only a severe reply, repeating his previous order, doubtlessly dictated by cruel necessity.”

72 Mexican Generosity Many Mexican soldiers worked to save as many of the Texans as possible. Many Mexican soldiers worked to save as many of the Texans as possible. Francita Alavez, the wife of an office, saved many men while treating the wounded soliders. Francita Alavez, the wife of an office, saved many men while treating the wounded soliders. She became known as the “Angel of Goliad” She became known as the “Angel of Goliad”

73 Lessons from the Alamo and Goliad Texans fought bravely but managed their affairs poorly. Texans fought bravely but managed their affairs poorly. The fighting revealed a lack of cooperation among Texas forces. The fighting revealed a lack of cooperation among Texas forces. Houston became convinced not to let his forces separate into small groups. Houston became convinced not to let his forces separate into small groups.

74 Questions to Consider What was the weakness of the Alamo as a defense post? What was the weakness of the Alamo as a defense post? Some of its walls were incomplete, leaving areas where enemy troops could easily enter. Some of its walls were incomplete, leaving areas where enemy troops could easily enter. Why did Travis’s calls for help go mostly unanswered? Why did Travis’s calls for help go mostly unanswered? The Texas army was disorganized; Fannin did not have sufficient transportation to move supplies.) The Texas army was disorganized; Fannin did not have sufficient transportation to move supplies.)

75 Questions to Consider Why would Travis draw a line in the sand with his sword? Why would Travis draw a line in the sand with his sword? He realized that the Mexican army would probably win, which meant death to all who stayed. Travis ensured that the Texans to understand what faced them. He realized that the Mexican army would probably win, which meant death to all who stayed. Travis ensured that the Texans to understand what faced them. What were the odds between the Mexican and Texan armies? What were the odds between the Mexican and Texan armies? The odds were about one to nine in favor of the Mexicans. The odds were about one to nine in favor of the Mexicans.

76 Questions to Consider How did Texans react to the Alamo battle? How did Texans react to the Alamo battle? It made them more determined to win independence. It made them more determined to win independence.

77 Questions to Consider Why do you think the Alamo defenders decided to stay? Why do you think the Alamo defenders decided to stay? What did the Alamo defenders accomplish? What did the Alamo defenders accomplish?


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