Chapter 16 Types of Crime The FBI identifies 29 types of crime, which can be categorized into five main categories—crimes against persons, crimes against property, victimless crimes, white-collar crimes, and organized crimes. Depending on the offense, white-collar crimes may be considered either property crimes or victimless crimes. Organized crimes may fall into all three categories. Violent Crimes like murder, manslaughter, robbery, forcible rape, and aggravated assault are considered violent crimes. Victimless Gambling, drug abuse, breaking curfew, and running away are categorized as victimless crimes. Property Crimes against property include burglary, motor vehicle theft, shoplifting, and some white-collar crimes.
Chapter 16 Causes of Juvenile Crime –Poor Home Conditions –Poor Neighborhood Conditions –Gang Membership –Dropping Out of School/Unemployment –Alcohol and Drugs –Peer Pressure
Chapter 16 Minors and the Death Penalty The Eight Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishments. When the Eighth Amendment was adopted, the death penalty was neither unusual nor considered excessively cruel by the framers of the Constitution. Over the years, however, many Americans began to feel differently, especially when it came to executing young criminals. In two separate decisions in 1989, the Court ruled that a person with mental retardation, a 16-year-old boy, and a 17-year-old boy all could be executed for murders that they were convicted of committing. But in 2002, the Court overruled the first of those decisions, and in 2005, the Court reversed the second decision, ruling that no one could be executed for a crime they committed while under the age of 18. In both of the later rulings, the Supreme Court looked to “the evolving [developing] standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.” What does this mean? Recent changes in various state laws convinced the Court that American society now saw these two groups of people as less responsible for their actions and less able to make rational decisions than adults and individuals without mental handicaps. In society’s eyes, and therefore the Court’s view, executing these defendants now was “cruel and unusual”and therefore unconstitutional.
Today’s Juvenile Justice System The Supreme Court later ruled that juveniles accused of crimes do not have the right to a jury trial. Instead of trials, juvenile courts hold hearings [held in private]. Only parents or guardians and others directly involved in the case can attend. The purpose of the hearings is to determine the guilt or innocence of the accused young person.
Today’s Juvenile Justice System Treatment or Punishment During a juvenile hearing, a judge listens to evidence presented by both sides. At the end of the hearing, the judge must decide the guilt or innocence of the juvenile offender.
Arrest Rates Versus Graduation Rates
Chapter 17 THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM Monopolies –Because monopolies limit competition, they harm our free-enterprise system. As a result, they are outlawed in the United States.
ECONOMY OF SCALE Comparing Economic Systems [page 457] Command, market, and traditional economies differ in the way goods are produced and sold. Most countries use a mix of two more of these systems. Command Market Traditional
Organization and Control in a Typical Corporation
THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM The Government’s Role [page 469] Although the U.S. government does not tell business owners what products to make or how much to charge, it does influence business in many ways. –ensures that big corporations do not destroy competition from small businesses. –protects a person’s rights to own private property and to buy and sell in a free market. –taxes business income. Changes in the tax code can affect business plans. Many agencies of the federal government help businesses. –Small Business Administration helps small businesses as they compete in the economy. The government plays many other roles in business. –helps business by providing information that managers can use in planning their production levels, sales, and costs. –sometimes provides loans and other types of assistance to businesses. –tries to keep the economy running smoothly. protects workers’ health and safety, prevents pollution of the environment, and protects buyers from dishonest practices and harmful products. ensures that employers cannot discriminate against workers or job applicants. Congress has also established a federal minimum wage law. This law requires a minimum hourly wage for employees who are not exempt.
Free Market Economy Page 470
Types of Advertising Competitive Competitive advertising tries to persuade consumers that a product is better than or different from its competitors. Informative Informative advertising gives consumers information about a product, such as its price, its quality, its history, and its special features. Informative ads may be combined with competitive ads. Emotional Some advertisers use words or pictures that attempt to appeal to a consumer’s emotions. Advertisers may appeal to fear, happiness, or sense of well-being, for example. –488
Truth in Advertising? Some advertising is false or misleading.
The Banking System Types of Banks Today businesses and individuals have a variety of different types of banks to choose from. –While the basic services of each type of bank are similar, they offer different services to their customers. Commercial Banks –Commercial banks offer a full range of financial services to businesses and individuals. Most of the banks in the United States are commercial banks. Savings and Loan –Savings and loan associations are institutions that help people save and obtain home mortgages. Credit Union –Credit unions are member-owned institutions that provide the same services as banks and savings and loans. Page 512
Economists use two definitions of money supply. The narrowest definition, called M1, includes all currency, checking accounts, and traveler’s checks. A broader definition, M2, includes all of those plus savings deposits, certificates of deposit, and other assets that can be converted quickly into cash. Money in your pocket or in your checking account is part of the money supply. Because banks can lend cash, the government does not have to print more money—it simply lets the banks increase the money supply. –Page 515 Banks and the Money Supply