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Racial Disparities How racial status impacts education, employment, health, and life itself.

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Presentation on theme: "Racial Disparities How racial status impacts education, employment, health, and life itself."— Presentation transcript:

1 Racial Disparities How racial status impacts education, employment, health, and life itself

2 Race question (1990 Census) 7. Is this person of Spanish/Hispanic origin? No Yes: Circle one of the following: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Other

3 Race question (2000 Census) Current considerations

4 2000 Census Demographics, by race

5 2000 Census breakdown of the Asian American and Pacific Islander population (total = 3.7%)

6 2000 Census breakdown of the Hispanic American population (total = 12.5%)

7 Population shares

8 U.S. Racial Groups Data from Cline Center for DemocracyCline Center for Democracy

9 Immigration Population:

10 Legal Immigration to the United States

11 Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States, ; Current Population Survey

12 Foreign Born Concentrations in the U.S., 2000

13 U.S. population growth due to immigration

14 Population growth attributed to Non-Whites Here’s Chicago

15 “There's not a Black America and White America and Latino America and Asian America; there's the United States of America.” Barack Obama, 2004 Democratic National Convention The New Face of America?

16 Part III: Racial Disparities Education, Employment and Income Health Services Media Coverage Criminal Justice Life Expectancy

17 Education, Employment, and Income

18 More recent data

19 Latest College Graduate data from CFED

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21 Recent data from Pew

22 Median Household Income by Race and Educational Attainment

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24 Average Family Liquid Retirement Savings

25 Estimated lifetime earnings by race and education Read the full Georgetown 2011 College Payoff reportGeorgetown 2011 College Payoff report

26 Home Ownership by Race Latest home ownership data from CFED More racial economic data and information is available at the Center for Community Economic Development websiteCenter for Community Economic Development Recent Pew Data U.S. Census, 2009

27 Unfair Lending Practices from Center for Community Economic Development fact sheetfact sheet

28 Bank lending practices (1991)

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30 Economic data Chicago Metro Champaign/Urbana Source: Diversitydata.org (compiled by Harvard University)

31 Latest poverty rates data from CFEDRecent Pew Data

32 Health

33 Distribution lacking health insurance by race and ethnicity (2004) The higher uninsured rate for Hispanics is not associated with higher poverty levels than other groups — the poverty rate for Hispanics is slightly lower than for African-Americans, 22.2% vs. 24.9% respectively. Rather, research has shown that Hispanics are more likely to be employed in jobs that do not offer health insurance…but when offered health insurance they accept at the same rates at whites and blacks (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) Latest uninsured data from CFED

34 Institute of Medicine 2002 report on ethnic and racial disparities in health care

35 Race and Mental Health

36 Media Bias

37 Setting the national agenda

38 Media bias in coverage of Hurricane Katrina?

39 The Criminal Justice system

40 A matter of opinion? Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2000, Table 2.29

41 “Driving While Black” Black men are 35 percent more likely than white men to report being stopped by police for a traffic violation. No difference between black and white women in reported stops. About 66% of blacks thought there was a legitimate reason for the police to stop their car, compared to 80% of whites. About 79% of blacks thought the police acted properly during the traffic stop, compared to 88% of whites. Data from national sample of 7,034 people stopped by police in previous 12 months (Lundman and Kaufman, 2003)

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44 The data show “prima facie evidence that African Americans and Hispanics are over-stopped, over-frisked, over-searched, and over-arrested.” Specifically, when stopped by police, compared to their White counterparts, Black drivers are 127% more likely to be frisked 76% more likely to have their vehicle searched 29% more likely to be arrested LAPD Data: Police Stops (Ayres and Borowsky, 2008)

45 LAPD Data: Search Outcomes Frisked African Americans are 42.3% less likely to be found with a weapon and frisked Hispanics are 31.8% less likely to have a weapon than frisked non- Hispanic Whites. Consensual searches of Blacks are 37.0% less likely to uncover weapons, 23.7% less likely to uncover drugs and 25.4% less likely to uncover anything else. Consensual searches of Hispanics similarly are 32.8% less likely to uncover weapons, 34.3% less likely to uncover drugs and 12.3% less likely to uncover anything else. (Ayres and Borowsky, 2008)

46 Ferguson Police Department Stop- and-Search Statistics “#Error” produced because it is not possible to calculate a percentage from zero.

47 Ferguson Police Department Stop- and-Search Statistics

48 Racial Profiling: Illinois Data

49 Racial Profiling: Champaign-Urbana

50 Racial Profiling: University of Illinois

51 Racial Profiling: Illinois 6 YR Averages

52 U.S. Incarceration rate, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Data Source: Illinois Department of Corrections. (Graph: Prison Policy Initiative, 2010)

53 The Price of Justice

54 International Incarceration Rates See complete world prison population list

55 World Incarceration Rates If Every U.S. State Were A Country Methodology and formal citations

56 U.S. Incarceration Rates by Sex Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Population in the United States, 2010, Appendix Table 3.. (Graph: Peter Wagner, 2012)

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58 Incarceration rates by race Source: Statistics as of June 30, 2010 and December 31, 2010 from Correctional Population in the United States and from U.S. Census Summary File 1.(Graph: Peter Wagner, 2012) Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Population in the United States, 2010, Appendix Table 3. (Graph: Peter Wagner, 2012)

59 Incarceration rates by race (cont.) Source: Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Population in the United States, 2010, Appendix Table 3. (Graph: Peter Wagner, 2012)

60 Juveniles in adult prisons Bureau of Justice Statistics, Profile of State Prisoners Under Age 18, (Peter Wagner, 2003)

61 Racial disparities in Illinois Nearly two thirds (64 percent) of the state's 45,629 prisoners in 2001 were African- American, a percentage more than four timers greater than blacks' share of Illinois' population.

62 Incarceration rates since 1925

63 Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie Note: All cases are reported only under the most serious offense. For example, a person who is serving prison time for both murder and a drug offense would be reported only in the murder portion of the chart.

64 Incarceration vs Drug Use

65 A Closer Look at Marijuana Read more here

66 A Closer Look at Marijuana

67 What happens when we decriminalize? Massachusetts decriminalized the possession of small amounts of marijuana in 2009, and arrests dropped an enormous amount: States that have legalized or decriminalized marijuana to date all have smaller-than- average black populations. Thus, the benefits of these policies have mainly accrued to white smokers.

68 Where we are now:

69 Lifetime incarceration rates Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population,

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71 Privatizing Prisons Source: Private Adult Correctional Facility Census, 1995 and 2001 Editions. Excerpt from The Prison Index: Taking the Pulse of the Crime Control Industry (2003) by Peter Wagner

72 75% of those convicted of participating in a Federal drug enterprise under the general provisions of SS 848 have been white and only about 24% of the defendants have been black. Federal Application of the Death Penalty

73 CapitalPunishment Data Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Capital Punishment 2001, Spreadsheet Figure 1. (Graph: Peter Wagner, 2003)

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75 Federal application of the death penalty Bureau of Justice Statistics, Capital Punishment 2001, Spreadsheet Fig. 3

76 No executions occurred in the U.S. between 1967 to 1976 (thanks to efforts of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund). Furman v. Georgia (1972): U.S. Supreme Court considers constitutionality of the death penalty. Court divided… Burger, Blackmun, Powell and Rehnquist argue in favor of constitutionality. Douglas and White argue that arbitrary application of capital punishment is cruel and unusual. Brennan and Marshall (and originally Stewart) argue that capital punishment is itself “cruel and unusual punishment.” White and Stewart make a deal "These death sentences are cruel and unusual in the same way that being struck by lightning is cruel and unusual. For, of all the people convicted of rapes and murders in 1967 and 1968, many just as reprehensible as these, the petitioners are among a capriciously selected random handful upon whom the sentence of death has in fact been imposed. My concurring Brothers have demonstrated that, if any basis can be discerned for the selection of these few to be sentenced to death, it is the constitutionally impermissible basis of race. See McLaughlin v. Florida, 379 U.S. 184 (1964) But racial discrimination has not been proved, and I put it to one side. I simply conclude that the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments cannot tolerate the infliction of a sentence of death under legal systems that permit this unique penalty to be so wantonly and so freakishly imposed."cruel and unusualMcLaughlin v. Florida379 U.S. 184EighthFourteenth Amendments 1976: Supreme Court finds Death Penalty constitutional The abolition of the death penalty

77 “The discretion of judges and juries in imposing the death penalty enables the penalty to be selectively applied, feeding prejudices against the accused if he is poor and despised, and lacking political clout, or if he is a member of a suspect and unpopular minority, and saving those who, by social position, may be in a more protected position.” ~ Justice Douglas "These death sentences are cruel and unusual in the same way that being struck by lightning is cruel and unusual. For, of all the people convicted of rapes and murders in 1967 and 1968, many just as reprehensible as these, the petitioners are among a capriciously selected random handful upon whom the sentence of death has in fact been imposed. My concurring Brothers have demonstrated that, if any basis can be discerned for the selection of these few to be sentenced to death, it is the constitutionally impermissible basis of race…But racial discrimination has not been proved, and I put it to one side. I simply conclude that the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments cannot tolerate the infliction of a sentence of death under legal systems that permit this unique penalty to be so wantonly and so freakishly imposed.“ ~ Justice Stewartcruel and unusualEighthFourteenth Amendments Furman v. Georgia: Dissent among abolitionists

78 Furman v. Georgia (1972) nullified the death penalty (5-4) and converted the death sentences of hundreds of death row inmates to life in prison. In following four years, 37 States enacted new death penalty laws designed to overcome Court’s concerns in Furman. Some of these new laws and constitutionality of capital punishment upheld by Supreme Court in Gregg v. Georgia (1976). The abolition and the aftermath

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80 In 1993 alone, 89% of the death sentences carried out involved white victims, even though 50% of the homicides in this country have black victims (left) Of the 1389 executions that have occurred since the death penalty was reinstated in1976, only 20 have involved a white defendant for the murder of a black person (info current as of ) Race of victim in death penalty cases BLACK % LATINO % WHITE % OTHER % Race of Victims Since 1976

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82 Since 1930 nearly 90% of those executed for the crime of rape in this country were African-Americans. Currently, about 50% of those on the nation's death rows are from minority populations representing 20% of the country's population. U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics

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84 Collateral damage from the war on terror?

85 "Even under the most sophisticated death penalty statutes, race continues to play a major role in determining who shall live and who shall die." ~ Justice Blackmun (1994, Callins v. Collins ) This is as true today as in Yet my guess is that many of you are hearing about it for the first time. Of course, some of you have been well aware of it for a long time. Out of necessity. Criminal justice: Final thoughts…

86 Recent Pew Data

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88 But why do these racial discrepancies exist? According to national surveys conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC), 66% of Blacks but only 34% of Whites thought that racial inequality in jobs, income, and housing was primarily the result of discrimination (Schuman, Steeh, Bobo, & Krysan, 1997). A Christian Science Monitor/TIPP poll of 906 adults taken from March 30 to April 5 found that twice as many Blacks and Hispanics (73%) as Whites (36%) say race played a major role in Trayvon Martin’s death.

89 Remember the Sneetches? Now the Star-bellied Sneetches had bellies with stars. The Plain-bellied Sneetches had none upon thars. The stars weren't so big; they were really quite small. You would think such a thing wouldn't matter at all. But because they had stars, all the Star-bellied Sneetches would brag, "We're the best kind of Sneetch on the beaches." Then one day, it seems, while the Plain-bellied Sneetches were moping, just moping alone on the beaches, sitting there, wishing their bellies had stars, up zipped a stranger in the strangest of cars. "My friends, " he announced in a voice clear and keen, "My name is Sylvester McMonkey McBean. I've heard of your troubles; I've heard you're unhappy. But I can fix that; I'm the fix-it-up chappie. I've come here to help you; I have what you need. My prices are low, and I work with great speed, and my work is one hundred per cent guaranteed."

90 A thought experiment…

91 So, how much money would it take? for you to agree to a permanent race change? and just so there’s something to compare to: for you to agree to continue life as citizen of different state? for you to agree to not watch television for the rest of your life?

92 A thought experiment…

93 Back to the thought experiment… THE COST OF BEING BLACK: White Americans' Perceptions and the Question of Reparations (Mazzocco, Brock, Olson & Banaji, 2006)

94


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