Presentation on theme: "Timeless Tales of Heroes, Gods, and Monsters"— Presentation transcript:
1Timeless Tales of Heroes, Gods, and Monsters The Age of MythologyTimeless Tales of Heroes, Gods, and Monsters
2MythologyDefinition: a usually traditional story of events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon . Myths often involve divine, supernatural, and/or heroic characters.Or in other words…
3MythologyDefinition #2: A collection of fictional stories involving the actions of gods, goddesses and other imaginary characters, intended to explain the unexplainable.
4Oral TraditionDefinition: the practice of passing along stories, tales, and folklore by word of mouthOral tradition is responsible for many of the “inconsistencies” of ancient mythology.
5LegendsDefinition: fictional stories loosely based upon real/historical people and events.Also known as “tall-tales”Are rooted in facts, but stories have been changed through the years…WHY?
6FablesDefinition: A brief story, often containing animal characters that teaches a lesson or moralFables deal with “useful truth”
7FantasyDefinition: highly imaginative writing that contains elements not found in real lifeMany science fiction and fantasy books, movies and comic books are based upon the style and manner of myths.
8Classical Greek Mythology Definition: A collection of stories about a set of gods, based upon oral tradition, as told and recorded by the ancient GreeksMyths served as entertainment, a sense of national/regional pride, and religious education
9“The Classicists”Greek mythology existed for hundreds of years before these stories were ever recorded with written words.The scholars/poets who recorded the myths are known as “classicists.”The major classicists of Greek Mythology include Virgil, Homer, and Ovid.
10Categories of MythsMyths of creation: these explain the beginning of time, space, and manMyths of explanation: these explain the great questions of the universeMyths of morality: these teach lessons and reinforce cultural morality
11The Importance of Myths Myths were critical to the Ancient GreeksThese stories touched all aspects of Greek life, including their art, music, architecture, military endeavors, religion, and education.
12Why Study Mythology?Greek myths are the foundation for the arts as we know it, including: movies, television, commercial products, sports, music, and comic books.A knowledge of Greek mythology enhances a person’s ability to understand and appreciate the world as a whole.
13Mythology: A Brief Timeline The beginning: according to popular beliefUranus was the “First One”, and he created the universe.Uranus created and married Gaia, otherwise known as “Mother Earth.”They lived on Mt. Olympus
14Uranus and Gaia had many children: Some were human-like giants, called the “Titans”Some were hideous, disfigured monstersThe Titans lived for many years under Uranus’s cruel reignUranus’s most powerful son would soon challenge his rule.
15Cronus killed his cruel father and assumed his role as “king of the Titans.” Before Uranus died, he predicted that Cronus would be killed by one of his sons, just as he had been.What is the logical solution to this problem?
16Cronus married his sister, Rhea, and had: -Three daughters: Hestia, Demeter, Hera-Three sons: Posiedon, Hades, and ZeusThese offspring were considered Titans, but would later become the gods and goddesses of Greek Mythology
17Because he feared his sons, Cronus ate his first two sons whole Fed up with his baby-gobbling, Rhea gave birth to her third son in secretRhea dressed a boulder up as a baby and Cronus ate the rock unknowinglyZeus was sent as an infant to be raised in secret by human shephards
19Zeus returned to Mt. Olympus as a young man and poisoned Cronus Cronus vomited up brothers Poseidon and HadesZeus was celebrated as a heroAn epic battle ensues between Cronus and his sons for the right to rule Mt. Olympus and the universe.
20The Great Battle! Cronus is assisted in battle by his Titan brothers Zeus and his brothers are assisted by the monsters Cronus had abused and tortured for years in captivity.These monsters included the Cyclopes (3) and the Hundred-Handed Ones (3)
21Mythology and Classic Art The Battle Between the Gods and the Titans by Wtewael Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
22Cronus is Defeated! The three sons roll dice to divide Cronus’ kingdom Poseidon wins, but elects to choose second, knowing that naïve Zeus would choose the empty sky.Poseidon is correct, and Zeus chooses unwisely.Hades is left to bitterly receive “leftovers.”
23Enter the Gods…Magically and mysteriously, the children of Cronus become immortal, and become gods and goddesses.Mythology offers no explanation for this important transformation!
24The PantheonThere are many gods, goddesses, demi- gods (half-gods) and supernatural beings in Greek Mythology.The twelve main gods and goddesses are known as the Pantheon.
26Zeus: King of the gods, ruler of Mt. Olympus Also god of lightning Was a powerful and aggressive rulerStruck Earth with lightning bolt when upsetWaged constant war with wife HeraCheated on wife countless times, and had numerous children with mortals, gods, and other creatures
27Zeus (continued)Was a master of disguise, which aided him in his philanderingWas a complex character: capable of unspeakable acts of immorality and occasional acts of mercy
29HERA Queen of immortals, goddess of marriage and childbirth Unhappy wife of ZeusDisapproved of Zeus’ constant cheatingHeld grudges against Zeus’ “children”Often punished Zeus with childish pranks and vengeful schemesAssociated with the peacock
31Poseidon God of water God of horses as well Ruled over seas, oceans, rivers and all the sea creaturesDid not live in the lost city of AtlantisInvented many of the fish and sea monsters of mythologyCreated the horse for Demeter (*)
33Demeter Goddess of the harvest, plants, farming One of Zeus’ favorite females (also sister)Poseidon also loved DemeterMother of PersephoneResponsible for the all-important growing season (most Greeks were farmers)
35Athena Goddess of wisdom and warfare Zeus daughter out of wedlock Mother was Metis, a TitanessZeus became paranoid that his child would harm him, so he eats her whole.Zeus developed a splitting headacheHephaestus split his head open with a chisel, and…
37The “Rebirth” of Athena Athena jumped out of Zeus skull, full-grown and wearing battle armor.Often associated with the owlCarried a shield adorned with the head of Medusa, the GorgonOne of the most popular and respected immortalsAthens, Greece is named for her
39APoll0 God of the sun, art, music, math, moderation and poetry Artemis’ twin brotherWas especially talented but arrogantOften engaged in unfair competitions with mortalsRegarded as Zeus’ most powerful sonKnown for his bloated self-esteem
42Artemis Goddess of hunting, sport, and the moon Born of Zeus and Leto (a nymph)Was Zeus’ favorite daughterZeus granted Artemis three wishes to show her his affectionMany of Zeus’ children were jealous of Artemis’ attention and gifts
43Artemis (continued) Artemis wished for a silver hunting bow and arrow. Artemis desired to be known by many nicknames.Artemis desired to stay forever young.*Artemis remains chaste for eternity. She endures countless advances, though.
45HADES God of the Underworld Was an aggressive, moody and selfish god Often depicted inaccurately as the “antagonist” of mythology“Hades” refers to both the character and the region of the Underworld itself
46Hades (continued) Ruled over the three regions of Underworld: Tartarus: dark field bordered by hideous, animated trees, filled with lost soulsRiver Styx: raging river, often depicted as lava or blood, that marked the entrance to the Underworld.Also called the “River of Souls”
47Hades (continued)Elysian Fields: a barren wasteland where the good dead reside(*) Isle of the Blessed: blissful paradise where only the most priviledged mortals went upon dying
48Hades (continued) Lived with his kidnapped wife, Persephone Cerberus (three-headed dog) guarded the entrance to the UnderworldDespite being an important mythological character, Hades only left the Underworld a handful of times.
50Hephaestus (Vulcan)God of iron work, blacksmithing, mechanics and manual laborSon of Zeus and HeraWas born ugly and fitfulHera kicked him from Mt. OlympusWas reinstated by Hera for his masterful skill of jewelry-makingWas ugly, crippled and hideous
51Hephaestus Strikes Gold… Married to Aphrodite, the most beautiful of all goddessesHad no children with his wifeEndured Aphrodite’s many affairs and constant flirtationsWas emotionally scarred by Aphrodite’s affair with Ares, the god of war
53Aphrodite Goddess of beauty, love, and sex Most beautiful of all immortalsAphrodite has a sketchy and controversial pastDue to oral tradition and censorship, the tales of Aphrodite have changed considerably through the years
54Aphrodite’s CreationVersion #1: Aphrodite was the son of Zeus and a DioneVersion #2: Aphrodite was born of Zeus and the daughter of one of his arch enemiesBut both of these stories are less-than- accurate twists on the real version…
55The Real Creation of Aphrodite Aphrodite was born from the death of UranusCronus castrated his father before death, and threw the “part” into the oceanFrom the bubbling, boiling, bloody foam, Aphrodite appearedShe was accompanied at birth by sea nymphs and dovesOften depicted as having hatched from a seashell
56Aphrodite (con’t.)Discovered by fishermen and taken to Mt. Olympus as a gift to ZeusHera, fearing a relationship between Zeus and Aphrodite, insisted that she marry Hephaestus, her ugliest childAphrodite serves as a constant temptation for gods and mortals alike.Her name literally means “from the foam”
58Ares God of warfare Was violent, aggressive, and unlikeable Was Hera and Zeus’s most despised sonHad an awkward love affair with AphroditeWas actually a coward (traitor)Was feared, but not respected by Greeks
60Hermes Messenger god, god of gambling, theivery and trickery Has a sketchy creation:Zeus child with a nymphZeus child with a goddess (unnamed)Son of two enchanted mortals*Oral tradition is contributed to the many different creations of Hermes
61Hermes Considered Zeus’ “toadie” Messenger and courier of the gods Only mythological character with ability to enter and leave Underworld freelyRan on air with a pair of special winged sandals called “thalia”“Thalia” were a gift from Athena