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Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 4
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Objectives 1. Explain the purpose of bail and preventive detention. 2. Describe the Court’s interpretation of cruel and unusual punishment. 3. Outline the history of the Court’s decisions on capital punishment. 4. Define the crime of treason.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Key Terms bail: money deposited by an accused person with the court to guarantee that they will appear in court preventive detention: holding an accused person without bail to prevent them from committing a serious crime before trial capital punishment: the death penalty treason: the crime of fighting against the United States or giving aid and comfort to its enemies
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Introduction How does the Constitution set limits on punishments for crime? –The Constitution prohibits excessive bail for accused people awaiting trial. –The 8 th Amendment bans cruel and unusual punishment. –The Supreme Court has set limits on the forms of execution allowed by the 8 th Amendment.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Bail Bail is money posted by a defendant with the court to guarantee that they will appear in court when called. Bail exists for two reasons: –A person should not be jailed until his or her guilt has been established; –A defendant is better able to prepare for trial outside of a jail.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Bail, cont. The amount of bail is set by the court for each particular case. –The more serious the crime or the wealthier the defendant, the higher the bail amount. –Poorer defendants may be released “on their own recognizance” without posting bail.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Bail, cont. The Constitution does not require that bail be set for all crimes. A defendant can make a legal appeal over the denial of bail or the amount of bail required.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Preventive Detention People accused of federal and state crimes can be held in preventive detention if it is suspected they would commit further crimes before trial. –Critics say this amounts to punishing the accused before they are convicted. –The Supreme Court has upheld this practice as a means of protecting the community.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Cruel and Unusual Punishment The 8 th amendment forbids “cruel and unusual punishment” and the 14 th Amendment extends this protection to the states. –The Supreme Court denies most claims of cruel and unusual punishment. –The Court has upheld California’s “three strikes” law, which sets a minimum sentence of 25 years for those convicted of a third crime.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Cruel and Unusual Punishment, cont. The Court has ruled that crowded prison conditions do not qualify as cruel and unusual punishment. What point is the cartoonist making here?
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Capital Punishment Checkpoint: What was the significance of the Court’s ruling in Furman v. Georgia? –The Court struck down Georgia’s laws punishable by the death penalty because those laws were not fairly administered-- mostly poor people and African Americans were executed. –This ruling led many states to rewrite their capital punishment laws.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Capital Punishment, cont. The Court has ruled that state laws requiring the death penalty for certain crimes are unconstitutional. The Court allows state laws that use a two-stage approach to capital punishment: –First a trial is held to decide if the accused is innocent or guilty –A second proceeding then determines if the death penalty is justified.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Capital Punishment Limits The death penalty can only be imposed for crimes that result in the death of the victim. The death penalty cannot be imposed on people who are mentally challenged or who were under age 18 when they committed their crime. A jury, not a judge, must decide whether the death penalty will be imposed.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Capital Punishment, cont. The Court has determined that the death penalty is constitutional. Few people sentenced to death are executed, but some innocent people have been freed from death row. The American people are evenly divided on the issue.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Treason Treason is the only crime defined in the Constitution. –It applies to all U.S. citizens who engage in war against the United States or who aid and comfort America’s enemies. –It can only be committed during wartime, but Congress has made it a crime to conspire against the United States or commit espionage or sabotage during peacetime.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Treason, cont. Checkpoint: Who may be convicted of treason? What is the maximum penalty for this crime? –Any American citizen can be convicted of treason. –The maximum penalty is death, but no one has ever been executed for treason. –Most state constitutions also condemn treason.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide Chapter 20, Section 4 Review Now that you have learned about how the Constitution sets limits on punishments for crime, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. –To what extent has the judiciary protected the rights of privacy, security, and personal freedom?
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