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A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for Mainstreamed Secondary School English Language Learners Carol Booth Olson University.

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Presentation on theme: "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for Mainstreamed Secondary School English Language Learners Carol Booth Olson University."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for Mainstreamed Secondary School English Language Learners Carol Booth Olson University of California, Irvine

2 2007 NAEP Writing Grade 8ELLsNot ELL Below Basic42%10% At or Above Basic58%90% At or Above Proficient 6%34% At or Above Advanced -0-2%

3 California High School Exit Exam, 2008 English/Language Arts Total Percent Passed: 79% White: 91% Hispanic: 71% English Learners: 40%

4 The Pathway Project 1997 – teachers (experimental and control) 2000 students Quasi-experimental Funded by OELA The Pathway Project 2006 – teachers (randomly assigned to experimental and control) 3600 treatment students Randomized field trial Funded by IES College Follow-up 66 students 2008 – students Quasi-experimental Funded by NWP

5 Reading Receptive Writing Productive

6 Reading and writing are essentially similar processes of meaning construction involving the use of cognitive strategies. Tierney & Pearson, 1983; Paris Wasik & Turner, 1991; Tierney & Shanahan, 1991.

7 What is a cognitive strategy? Cognition = the process of knowing or thinking Strategy = a tool or tactic one uses to solve a problem Cognitive Strategy = a thinking tool

8 “Numerous reports from blue ribbon panels implicate poor understandings of cognitive strategies as the primary reason why adolescents struggle with reading and writing (Deshler, Palinscar, Biancarosa & Nairs, 2007; Graham, 2006; Snow & Biancarosa, 2003)” Conley, 2008

9 Cognitive Strategies Reading Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991 National Reading Panel, 2000 Block & Pressley, 2002 Duke & Pearson, 2002 Writing Langer & Applebee, 1987 Langer, 1991 Englert, Raphael, Anderson, Anthony, & Stephens, 1991 Graham & Harris, 1996 Troia & Graham, 2002 Graham & Perin, 2007 Reading & Writing Tierney & Pearson, 1983 Tierney, Soter, O’Flavahan, & McGinley, 1989 Tierney & Shanahan, 1991

10 Cognitive Strategies for ELLs Chamot & O’Mally, 1994 Jiménez, Garcia, & Pearson, 1994 Fitzgeral, 1995 August & Hakuta, 1997 Anderson, 2002 Vaughn & Klinger, 2004 Meltzer & Hamann, 2005 Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007 Schleppegrel, 2009

11 FACTS About Santa Unified School District SAUSD is the largest district in Orange County and the fifth largest district in California. It has the greatest number of minority students in Orange County (98.5%). 94.6% of the student population is Chicano/Latino. 88% of the students are mainstreamed ELLs The district has a secondary attrition rate of 50%. SAUSD students are underrepresented in postsecondary institutions. (Only 3-6% of SAUSD students are eligible for admission to a University California.)

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13 Tool Kit

14 Verbs in the Common Core Anchor Standards Summarize Make Inferences Draw Conclusions Analyze Interpret Assess Evaluate Reflect

15 Three Types of Knowledge Declarative Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Conditional Knowledge Paris, Lipson, & Wixon, 1983

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21 Ca-CCSS-ELA Anchor Standards Reading 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes.

22 Writing 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts. 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

23 What is a Theme? The theme of a literary work is the writer’s message or main idea. The theme is what the writer wants you to remember most. Most stories, novels, and plays, and sometimes poems have more than just one theme. Some themes are easier to spot than others. A character might say something about life that is clearly important. For example, in E.B. White’s Charlotte’s Web, Wilbur says at the end, “Friendship is one of the most satisfying things in the world.” That’s a statement of one of the book’s themes. The author leaves clues, but it is up to you to put them together and decide what the important message or lesson is. The article you read for your pre-test was nonfiction. Although some nonfiction texts are written solely to present facts and information, others are also intended to present the writer’s message and influence readers’ ideas about people, places, or events. Therefore, nonfiction texts can also contain themes.

24 Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel Writing Situation Two days after the Haiti earthquake on January 12, 2010, Leonard Pitts, an award-winning journalist, wrote an article for the Miami Herald in which he describes the Haitian people’s response to the tragedy which struck their country. Writing Directions After reading “Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel,” select one important theme to write an essay about. Create a theme statement which expresses the author’s main point, lesson, or message in the article. Your theme statement will be the thesis of your essay—the claim you make about the writer’s message or main idea. As you develop your argument, pay specific attention to: Pitts’ description of the Haitian people’s actions after the earthquake The language Pitts uses to describe nature and the relationship between the Haitian people and nature (including similes, metaphors, symbols, personification, or other figurative language) Pitts’ response to the way the Haitian people deal with their tragedy When a journalist’s purpose is strictly to inform, he or she will present the facts objectively without trying to influence the reader. However, Pitts does more than this. Discuss Pitts’ purpose in writing “Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel.” What message does he want his readers to take away from reading his article and why is it especially significant? Remember: There is no one theme and therefore no “right” answer to this prompt. What is important is to support your ideas with evidence from the text. Proofread your paper carefully to be sure that it follows the conventions of written English

25 I think the theme is about disasters. Good things happen and bad things happen. The earth always kills people. The rain will not stop. Earth is mean to Haiti.

26 How is a Topic Different Than a Theme? A story’s theme is different from its topic or subject. The topic is simply what it’s about. The theme is the authors point about a topic. It is the “So what?” To identify a theme, sometimes it helps to generate a list of topics or big ideas in a story. Common topics for themes that you’ll find in stories are usually abstract nouns that deal with human relationships, such as bravery, friendship, injustice, revenge, etc.

27 What is a Theme Statement? A theme is more than one word like “love” or “prejudice.” Therefore, a theme statement must be a complete sentence that states the author’s message about life or about human relationships. A good theme statement applies to people in general, not just to the specific characters in the text. Here are some examples of theme statements. It is important to stand up for your beliefs. Prejudice is a destructive force in our society. If you interfere with fate, you will be sorry. Growing up means taking responsibility for yourself. When you open your heart to others, you’re open to hurt as well as love. It is important to accept people for what they are on the inside and not judge them based on how they appear on the outside.

28 The Land Before Time

29 Topics that Lead to Themes Action Belief Bravery Brotherhood Courage Death Despair Destruction Determination Endurance Faith Generosity Hardship Heart Human nature Heroism Hope Honor Loss Nobility Persistence Perseverance Power Risk Taking Resilience Sacrifice Selflessness Spirit Survival

30 Faith: Faith can give you strength to persevere. Persistence: Never give up. There is always a chance you will achieve your goals if you keeping trying. Belief: Sometimes you have to believe in something even if you can’t see it. Hope/Endurance: If you have hope, you can endure great hardship. Heart: “Some things you see with your eyes; other you see with your heart.” Bravery: When bad things happen, we have to think positive and have the courage to keep going.

31 How does “The Land Before Time” relate to the non-fiction we read for our pre- test?

32 Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel Writing Situation Two days after the Haiti earthquake on January 12, 2010, Leonard Pitts, an award-winning journalist, wrote an article for the Miami Herald in which he describes the Haitian people’s response to the tragedy which struck their country. Writing Directions After reading “Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel,” select one important theme to write an essay about. Create a theme statement which expresses the author’s main point, lesson, or message in the article. Your theme statement will be the thesis of your essay—the claim you make about the writer’s message or main idea. As you develop your argument, pay specific attention to: Pitts’ description of the Haitian people’s actions after the earthquake The language Pitts uses to describe nature and the relationship between the Haitian people and nature (including similes, metaphors, symbols, personification, or other figurative language) Pitts’ response to the way the Haitian people deal with their tragedy When a journalist’s purpose is strictly to inform, he or she will present the facts objectively without trying to influence the reader. However, Pitts does more than this. Discuss Pitts’ purpose in writing “Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel.” What message does he want his readers to take away from reading his article and why is it especially significant? Remember: There is no one theme and therefore no “right” answer to this prompt. What is important is to support your ideas with evidence from the text. Proofread your paper carefully to be sure that it follows the conventions of written English

33 Read the prompt Highlight Make a T chart Do What DoWhat

34 Select Write Express Pay (Discuss) (Discuss/Analyze) (Discuss) Discuss Explain one important theme an essay the author’s main point, message, or lesson attention to author’s description of actions after the tsunami The language the author uses to describe nature and the relationship between the Haitian people and nature author’s response to the way the Haitian people deal with their tragedy the author’s purpose in writing the article the message why it is especially significant Do What

35 “Sometimes, the Earth is Cruel” Staying strong is our only hope. We can always get back up no matter how life pushes us down. Loss brings people together. “Fall down seven times, get up eight.” (Chinese proverb.) It mean, you can fall and stay there, or you can fall and get up. You decide. Keep moving forward and have the strength to go on no matter how painful life can be. The earth is cruel, but you have to accept it and go on. When something devastating happens, we still must recover. If you have hope, you can endure great hardship. You can’t always expect things to go your way, but if you have hope, life will get better. Never give up on what you dream. The human spirit has the power to endure great tragedy.

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39 Side-by-Side Comparison

40 Average effect size 0.34

41 Comparison of CAHSEE Pass Rates for for the UCI Writing Project’s Pathway Project Overall State Pass Rate54%78%75% Overall State Hispanic Pass Rate46%66%62% Overall State ELL Pass Rate28%42%39% Overall Santa Ana Unified School District Pass Rate 40% N= % N= % N=3343 Santa Ana Unified School District Control Students’ Pass Rate 54% N=174 75% N=119 66% 184 Santa Ana Unified School District Pathway Students’ Pass Rate 74% N= % N= % N= 179

42 Measure: Assessment of Literary Analysis (6 point scale) ALA: 2 raters per essay (literary analysis) Grades 6 to 12 scored holistically on a 6-point scale to assess the (1) quality and depth of interpretation (2) clarity of the thesis (3) organization of ideas (4) appropriateness and adequacy of textual evidence (5) sentence variety, and (6) correct use of English language conventions

43 Year 1 and 2 ALA effect size: significant impact in Year 1/2

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45 Year 1 and 2 CST effect size.07*.09*.10*

46 What Pathway Means to Me By Irene Ramirez What Pathway means to me Is hard to say succinctly Construct the gist as I speak I’ll give some hints as to what I think My reading isn’t what it was I ask more questions and make predictions I try to visualize what I read I make connections, I do concede Imagery, symbolism I know what they are Before this year They were really hard

47 When I write, I know what to do I plan ahead, and so should you I form a thesis, I think of a hook I form opinions on what’s in the book Concrete details are important too They help support What you think And they prove! Image Grammar is also cool I write a sentence with participles I paint a picture With my pen in my hand The final result is oh so grand

48 In literature circles We sit ‘round in a ring Discussing our books It’s fun and interesting So Pathway had taught me to read and to write I knew how before But now I am tight I’ll leave you tonight With one thought before I go Pathway helps students Off to college I go!

49 Study Design Quasi-experimental, Longitudinal Study ( ) Followed 2 Groups of 12th graders from High School to College Cohort Pathway 34 Control 32 Cohort Pathway 46 Control 37

50 Hypothesis Better Writing Typical Writing Better Placement Lower Placement Pathway Instruction Typical Instruction Better Persistence Lower Persistence EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON

51 Expected Findings The intervention will result in Better academic preparation Better college placement Better college persistence

52 Results: Placement, Pass Rates, & Persistence Pathway Placement and Persistence Results in SAC

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54 Conclusion Cognitive strategies instruction does have an impact on college success: Higher placement in composition courses than all freshmen Higher pass rates in their composition courses than all freshmen Better persistence to the 2 nd semester, 2 nd year and 3 rd year of college than all freshmen

55 Articles Olson, C. B., & Land, R (2007). A cognitive strategies approach to reading and writing instruction for English language learners in secondary school. Research in the Teaching of English, 41:3, Kim, J., Olson C.B., Scarcella, R., Kramer, J., Pearson, M., van Dyk, D., Collins, P., & Land, R. (2011). Can a cognitive strategies approach to reading and writing instruction improve literacy outcomes for low income English language learners in the middle and high school grades? Results from a multi-site cluster, randomized controlled trial of the Pathway Project. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 4:3, Olson, C.B., Kim, J.S., Scarcella, R., van Dyk, D., Collins, P., & Land, R. (2012). Enhancing the Interpretive reading and analytical writing of mainstreamed English learners in secondary school: Results from a randomized field trial using a cognitive strategies approach. American Educational Research Journal, 49:2, Matuchiak, T. & Olson, C.B. & Scarcella, R. (under review). The Pathway Project Unpacked: Understanding the effects of a cognitive strategies approach to literacy instruction on the academic writing of mainstreamed secondary English learners. Research in the Teaching of English.


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