What is a galaxy? Stars are not uniformly distributed through the universe but are unevenly clustered into groups.
What is a galaxy? A galaxy is a massive system of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity. Galaxies contain billions of stars.
What is a galaxy? Within galaxies, are smaller groups of stars known as star clusters. A “cluster” is a group of stars inside the galaxy. M13 Cluster in our galaxy can see with binoculars over 100,000 stars
What is a galaxy? Hubble identified three types: Spiral Elliptical Irregular
Spiral Galaxy Shaped like a flattened disk with a bulging center and “arms” that curve in a spiral pattern Rich with dust and gases New stars are in “arms” Old stars are in the center (e.g.) Milky Way
Elliptical Galaxy Shaped like a sphere or “egg” because stars are close together near the center & farther apart on the outside edges Very little dust and gas Very few new stars Mostly old stars
Irregular Galaxy No definite shape or organization Contains clouds of dust and gases Contains a mix of old and new stars
Milky Way Our solar system is located in a spiral galaxy called the Milky Way Galaxy.
Milky Way 1 – Closest Milky Way “arm” 2 companion galaxies: 2 - Large Magellanic Cloud 3 - Small Magellanic Cloud 2 3 1
Distances between Galaxies Galaxies are so far away that even the closest galaxies appear as fuzzy patches of light.
Distances between Galaxies Galaxies are grouped together into clusters, which form superclusters. The Milky Way is part of a cluster called the Local Group. The farthest galaxies from Earth are about 14 billion light years away.
Mind = Blown
Big Bang Theory In the late 1920s, Hubble discovered that most of the galaxies he observed were moving away from Earth. This could only be explained if the entire universe was expanding.
Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory states the expansion of the universe began about 14 billion years ago. The universe was a tiny point that contained all the energy and matter of the universe. The universe began to expand rapidly, and cool.
Big Bang Theory The universe was too hot to form elements for several hundred thousand years. The universe consisted of radiation and subatomic particles. As the universe cooled, hydrogen and helium atoms formed.
Big Bang Theory Galaxies began forming several hundred million years after the Big Bang. Clouds of hydrogen and helium possibly became more dense in some regions.
Big Bang Theory The dense regions began to clump and form stars.
Dark Matter & Dark Energy Scientists can calculate how much mass the universe should contain by the way galaxies move through space. All the matter they can detect added together is less than the amount needed. –The missing matter is called dark matter. –The missing energy needed to explain the expansion of the universe is called dark energy.
Which is the shape of the Milky Way? Aflat Belliptical Cirregular Dspiral 12.3 Galaxies
How old is the universe thought to be? Aseveral hundred thousand years B1 million years C14 billion years D63,000 million years 12.3 Galaxies
A cluster is a group of ____. Astars Bsolar systems Cgalaxies Dplanets 12.3 Galaxies
The average distance between Earth and the Sun is called a(n) ____. Alight-year Bastronomical unit Cangstrom Dsolar unit SCI 4.c
What causes clouds of gas and dust to form clumps in interstellar space? Asolar winds Bgravity Celectrons Ddark matter SCI 2.g
Galaxies have what three shapes? Acluster, group, and spiral Bsupercluster, cluster, and group Cspiral, elliptical, and irregular Dregular, irregular, and flat SCI 4.a
Vocab – Galaxies text p galaxy 2.spiral galaxy 3.Milky Way 4.elliptical galaxy 5.irregular galaxy 6.randomly 7.big bang theory HIGHLIGHT!!!